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QMS 102 - Chapter 3 Notes.docx

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Quantitative Methods
QMS 102
Boza Tasic

QMS 102 – Chapter 3 Notes Frequency: number of occurrence Frequency Distribution: a summary table where the data is arranged into numerically ordered classes Advantages of using frequency distribution table looks like a bar graph can handle larger data sets (50+) condenses raw data into a more useful form allows for a quick visual interpretation of the data enables determination of major characteristics of the data set (including where the data is concentrated/clustered) Number of Classes: use 5 to 10 classes in frequency distribution table all have same length Notion for Indicating Classes: use expressions such as: “and under” (ex: 40 and under 50) “greater or equal than 40 and less than 50” Class Width: denoted by CW CW = Upper Boundary – Lower Boundary all classes must be the same width no gaps in between classes first and last class must contain frequencies (lowest = first value, highest = last value) Boundaries: numerical values used when designating the classes should look like data, i.e. they should have the same number of decimal places as the data if data = integer, boundaries = integer if data = one decimal point, boundaries = one decimal point reasoning: to retain the info about the type of quantitative data each boundary must be a multiple of chosen class width to find lower boundary of the first class, find the greatest multiple of the class width that is less than or equal to the min. data value Class Width = (max – min)/5, absolute min. number of classes = 5, but greater than 5, if told so Estimated Class Width: value obtained from (max-min)/5 OR (max-min)/min # of classes recommended Always one of the two recommended class widths (from the list of nice #s) that encloses the estimated class width. Given a sample size n denoted by: f = frequency (total # of occurrences of data within the class) rf = relative frequency is defined as rf = f/n % = Percentage of Frequency and it is defined by % = rf x 100 use maximum of 3 decimals for rf and 1 decimal for % Frequency Distribution Tips diff class boundaries may provide
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