Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
Ryerson (30,000)
RMG (300)
RMG 302 (10)


Retail Management
Course Code
RMG 302
Donna Smith

of 2
Motivation The processes that cause people to behave as they do.
Utilitarian Practical
Hedonic Impractical (Subjective and Experimental)
Drive Theory Focuses on biological needs.
Tension The unpleasant state that exists if a persons consumption needs arent fulfilled
Homeostasis Activating goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce the unpleasant
state and return to a balanced one
Expectancy Theory Behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable
Biogenic Needs Food, water, air, shelter
Psychogenic Needs Acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture. Status,
power, affiliation
Valence Positive or Negative
Motivational Conflict:
Approach-Approach: Choosing between 2 alternatives. (Theory of Cognitive
Dissonance People have a need for order and consistency in their lives, tension is created
when beliefs conflict)
Approach-Avoid: Desire a goal but wish to avoid (McDonalds, weight)
Avoid-Avoid: Choosing 2 undesirable alternatives (Paying off old car, buying new car)
Consumer Behaviour Needs:
Need for affliction
Need for Power
Need for Uniqueness
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs:
Self-Actualization Self Fulfillment, Enriching Experiences
Ego Needs Prestige, Status, Accomplishment
Belongingness Love, Friendship, Acceptance by others
Safety Security, Shelter, Protection
Physiological Water, Sleep, Food
Involvement A persons perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs
Simple Processing Only the basic features of a message are considered
Elaboration Incoming information is linked to pre-existing knowledge systems
Levels of Involvement:
Inertia Decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation
to consider alternatives
Flow state Optimal experience characterized by: Mental enjoyment of the activity,
sense of playfulness, distorted sense of time, a match between the challenge at hand and
ones skills
Cult Products Command fierce loyalty, devotion, and maybe worshippers by consumers
highly involved with the brand (Apple)
Marketing Performances Lives Marketing Presentations
Interactive Mobile Marketing Marketing via Text messages
Value Some condition is preferable to its opposite (Young, Old)
Socialization Agents Parents, Friends, Teachers
Enculturation Learning the beliefs and behaviours endorsed by ones own culture
Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions:
Power-distance- Expectation that power is distributed unequally
Individualism Degree in which individuals are integrated into groups
Masculinity Distribution of roles between the genders
Uncertainty avoidance Tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity
Long-term orientation
Conscientious Consumerism Going Green
Instincts Innate patterns of behaviour that are universal in a species
Expectancy theory focuses on cognitive factors rather than biological factors to understand
what drivs behaviour
Value System Set of value ranking within a culture
Motivation The processes that lead people to behave as they do
Product involvement A consumers level of interest in a product