Personality – A person’s unique psychological makeup and how it influences how they
respond to the environment.
Freudian Theory – Sigmund Freud developed the idea that human behaviour stems from
a fundamental conflict between a person’s desire to gratify their physical needs and the
necessity to function as a member of society
The id is oriented toward immediate gratification (Party Animal/Selfish & Illogical)
and operates according the pleasure principle – Behaviour is guided by the primary
desire to maximize pleasure and avoid pain.
The Superego counteracts the id (the Conscience) and prevents selfish gratification.
The ego mediates between the id and superego.
Motivational Research - Socially unacceptable needs are channeled into acceptable
outlets. This uses in-depth interviews on few customers.
•Karen Horney – People can be described as moving toward (complaint - namebrand),
away (detached – tea drinkers), or against others (aggressive – strong masculine
•Carl Jung – Created analytical psychology.
Idiocentrics (individualist orientation) VS allocentrics (group orientation) differ in:
Personality: Old-fashioned, Surprising, Serious, Glamorous, Rugged
Animism – Inanimate objects are given qualities that make them lively.
•Level 1: Possessed by soul
•Level 2: Given human characteristics
Product Complementarity – Symbolic meanings of different products are related to each
Extroversion, innovativeness, self-consciousness, and frugality are all examples of consumer
Brand Equity – Strong, favorable, and unique association in the consumer’s minds about a
Archetypes – Universally shared ideas and behaviour patterns
AIO – Activity, Interest, Observation
VALS – Values and lifestyles system