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Lecture 3

SSH105 Lecture 3: Critical Thinking Chapter 3 Notes


Department
Social Sciences and Humanities
Course Code
SSH 105
Professor
Andrew Hunter
Lecture
3

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Crical Thinking Chapter 3 Notes
Condional statement is a statement of the form:
If P... then Q
Condionals are compound statements composed of two parts:
Antecedent what follows the word “if
Consequent – what follows the word “then”
Necessary Condions:
A is necessary for B. Without A, B would not be true
Sucient Condions:
A is a sucient condion for B. If A is true, then B is true
Ex. If John is a bachelor, then John is unmarried.
"then John is unmarried" - is a Consequent, necessary condion
"John is a bachelor" - is a Antecedent, sucient condion
Therefore:
Condional Statement
1. Antecedent expresses a sucient condion
2. Consequent expresses a necessary condion
Valid Condional Arguments:
1. Arming the Antecedent
If P, then Q
P
Therefore, Q
Must be Valid. (true premises = true conclusion)
Ex. (1) If a shape is a square, then it has four sides
(2) The shape is a square
Therefore,
(3) It has four sides
2. Denying the Consequent
If P, then Q
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