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Ryerson University
Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 105
Andrew Hunter

The Power of Critical Thinking. 9/14/2012 5:52:00 AM  What Is Critical Thinking?  Adhomenum - attacks someones view by attacking the person, nothing to do with the reasoning  Learning about standards when learning about critical thinking   Why Should we think critically?  (May be asked why people don't like to think critical) - refer to slide 12.   What do you need to know to think critically?  What is an arguement?  Memorize definations on slide 15  Read chapter 1 and try excerciszes Environment of Critical Thinking 9/14/2012 5:52:00 AM Inductive Vs. Deductive Arguments  Inductive argument means we are showing that a conclusion is probably true Deductive arguments we are showing that the conclusion is 100% true Assertions(Statements)  Assertion(Statement) can be in future tense  “I wish she will win the race” is an assertion but is an opinion about you  Assertion can be true or false  Premise is a type of assertion, where a statement that is offered in support of a conclusion  The conclusions can either be at the end of a assertion or in the beginning  A conclusion is a statement that is held to be supported by a premise or premises.  Argument is a set of statements one of which (the conclusion) is taken to be supported by the remaining statements  An inference is the move from a premise (or premises) to a conclusion Don’t confuse arguments with explanations  Arguments have something to prove  Explanations are not trying to prove something but they are telling you why something happened  Words like “for” “Since” “Therefor” are indicator for a conclusion  Not all statements contain arguments  Look for a conclusions first and then look for the premise  Refer to Slide # 10 for Conclusion and Premises Indicator words Two points about Indicator Words  Logically Premises comes first and conclusion comes last  Textually conclusions can come first or last  Always think of the conclusion first Truth Versus Logical Strength  Arguments are never true or false, they can be valid or invalid, good or bad, strong or weak  Only Assertions can be true or false  Evaluating the Premises and Conclusion are totally different from evaluating logical strength of arguments  If the premises are true are the conclusion true or false?  Logically strong premises can be false  Valid refers to the logical strength of the argument  A strong argument can be false but it HAS to be valid  Validity is not if the premises is true but if the premises makes the conclusions true  Validity is if the premises is true the conclusion has to be true Validity and Soundness  An argument is only deductively sound is when an argument is deductively valid and if an only if the premise is true Deductive Validity  An argument is deductively valid if and only if it is not possible for premises to be true and the conclusion false  If all premises were true, the conclusion would have to be true too  An argument is deductively invalid if and only if it i
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