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Class 9 Surveying Methods

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Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 301
Tonya Davidson

SSH Class 9 Surveying Methods - a systematic way to ask a specific set of questions and are almost exclusively quan methods and is deductive Research Design in survey based research: general inquiry: subject you want to study Hypothesis: deductive and broad and looking for a relationship between variables Sample/population: sample methods and sample sizes Pros - you can survey large samples because you can look at larger amounts because you are asking specific questions - highly standardized because survey relies on using the exact same question fr every participant and interviewee Cons - does yield to insight to methods that qual methods do; no opportunities for follow up questions or development of narrative, context is often lost - invest time and effort in developing surveys and people question why you are asking these type of questions and it might be a disadvantaged - accompanied by same ethical considerations as all other methods ie) voluntary ongoing consent, told purposes of study, respondents should know if they are granted anonyminity and confidentiality Self-administered surveys: questionnares Interviewer administered surveys: someone asks you a set of questions Survey Questions 2 types: - open questions: there is a space where you can write your thoughts on a few lines - closed questions: mostly this type in surveys. Fixed set of options ie) a b c or d when there are open questions, open data is coded and converted into numerical value and fitted into a schema that researcher has developed closed questions are precoded Structured Interview: a script ; its strength is based on its consistency and standardization. More work is done upfront to make sure interview is clear so it can be presented in a standardized way 2 types of questions: open questionn are fewer and closed questions more often used Variation and Error: true variation: variability in answers amongst people error: variation is a problem because something is wrong with the interviewer; problem in delivery of structured in the interview, there is a lack of reliability (lack of consistency with the measure) Intra: inconcistency with the interviewer asking question Inter: variation amongst interviewers. Interviewers are asking questions differently and can change the answers of participants Interviewer effects: Reactivity: broad concept that respondents might not answer authethically because there is somebody there asking them questions. Self administered answers produced higher reactivity than other administered methods Social desirability bias: people give answers that best align with social norms; do not want to shock interviewer Interview Contexts: IN person: benefit is that higher response rate will be given ie) harder to say no or quit in middle of interview negative ef
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