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SOC103- Chapter 8- Gender and Sexualities.docx

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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

SOC103- Chapter 8- Gender and Sexualities Module 8.1 Sex and Gender  Sex- determination of male or female on the basis of a set off socially agreed-upon biological criteria  Gender- social distinction between masculinity and femininity  Binary construction form of categorization based on 2 mutually exclusive and diametrically opposite groups The biological female and male  Intersexed individuals- individuals born with ambiguous genitalia  Hermaphrodites— combination of male and female genitalia and/or chromosomes Gender as socially constructed  Any given culture defines what it means to be male and female  Gender relations- organizing principles that shape and order interactions between, as well as the relative social importance if woman and men  Intersects with other organizing principles in society e.g. ethnicity, social class Transgender and transsexual  Transgender- umbrella tern for a range of people who do not fit into normative constructions of sex and gender  Live as gender they identify as themselves with or without sex reassignment procedures  Includes transsexuals, transvestites, intersexed individuals, people who identity themselves neither male or female  Transsexual- a person who undergoes sex reassignment, which may include surgeries Dominant forms of masculinity and femininity  No single form of masculinity or femininity culturally dominant forms  Hegemonic masculinity- normative ideal of dominant masculinity o Concept on what we consider normal and acceptable o Ideal man is heterosexual western societies  Emphasized femininity- normative ideal of femininity, based on compliance with women’s subordination to men o Most culturally valued form of femininity o Characteristics supportiveness, enthusiasm and sexual attractiveness Sociological approaches to gender  Functionalism—maintain human societies by maintaining the equilibrium in the whole o Men fulfill an instrumental role—paid labour, provides from and shelter o Woman fulfill expressive role—emotional support, nurturance for family o Woman being responsible for rearing societies next generation—they are not at home to provide care  Conflict theory—focus on examining gender differences in access to and control of scarce resources  Symbolic interactionism—interested in the meanings of male and female and of masculinity and femininity o Gender created through social interactions  Feminist theory—argue women live under conditions of subordination and oppression, conditions neither natural nor inevitable  Post-structuralist theory—understanding people as positioned within, and produced by discourse o Gender cannot be thought of as having some essential basis Module 8.2 Reproducing Gender Families  In the first six months—boys are more likely to be held, rocked and kissed  Girls are treated more emotionally  Boys tend to be treated with more neglect (big boys don’t cry)  Girls—pink, boys—blue  Household tasks tend to be gendered Education  There are more female teachers than males 1 SOC103- Chapter 8- Gender and Sexualities  Barriers to men being a teacher low salaries, negative stereotypes, fear of being accused of sexual misconduct  Student achievement—teachers then to interact more with males Media  Television shows—showers us with normativity images of man and women and masculinity and femininity o Reality tv—reinforces gender stereotypes  Television commercialsdominant gender themes o Ads for alcohol construct men as losers who hangout with their male buddies, self mock, and ironic about their loser status o Male friendships are the center o Men not in committed relationships are always ready to engage in sexual activity with fantasy woman o Woman are dichotomously depicted as hotties or bitches  Talk shows—exploits normality  Media and the beauty ideal—molding ones appearance to resemble dominant constructions of femininity and masculinity will lead to better one self Module 8.3 Gender and Work
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