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SOC103- Chapter 9- Race and Racialization.docx

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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

SOC103- Chapter 9- Race and Racialization Module 9.1 What is Minority?  Minority- definable category of people who are socially disadvantage  Membership of a minority group o Group lacks in power o Definable from a majority Race: The Social Construction of difference  Race- historically a group of people who were physically and genetically distinguished from other groups  Various groups of people becoming isolated from each other and having to adapt to their unique environment  75% of all genes in a human are identical in ever human  Racialization- process of attributing complex characteristics to racial categories  Internalized racism- internalization of racial categorizations into a persons identity  Race should be replaced with ‘minority population’ Ethnicity: The social construction of group identity  Ethnicity- multidimensional concept that includes ones minority or majority status, ancestry, language, and often religious affiliation  Ethnic group- a collection of people who identify with each other and share a common culture  Ethnicity is an ascribed status  Closely linked to migration  Subsequent generation—immigrate population becomes more like the dominant culture  Sikhs in Canada represent members of ethic and minority groups Immigration  Immigration levels are the result of many forces o Displacement of people—war and political upheaval o Economical growth or collapse o Changes in immigration policies and procedures o Changes in global communication and transportation network Module 9.2 Prejudice, Racism, and Discrimination  Ways to describe the way we view or treat members of groups—other than our own Prejudice  Prejudice-negative judgment about a person or group that is irrational, long-lasting, and not based on facts  Ecological fallacy- drawing conclusions about individual attributes from data gathered from an entire group  Exception fallacy- drawing conclusions about an entire group based on observations of individuals  Prejudiced attitudes as being the result of dominant group members’ classifications—have power to impose their views on others o Result in most harm  Stereotypes- stable and sweeping generalization about a category of people Racism  Racism- ideology that maintains that one ‘race’ is inherently superior to another  Invaluable tool—helping a group feel better about itself  Democratic racism- system that advocates equality but in fact perpetuates minority differentiation and oppression  Result of social processes—some extent everyone has some stereotypical views of other people and group Discrimination  Discrimination- actions that deny or grant advantages to members of a particular group  Not a single entity operates on a number of levels in society  Classified as—individual, direct institutional, indirect institutional  Individual discrimination- occurs when an individual advantages or disadvantages someone because of that persons group membership  Direct institutional discrimination- occurs when an institution employs policies or practices that are discriminatory against a person or group 1 SOC103- Chapter 9- Race and Racialization  Indirect institutional discrimination- occurs when an action produces uneven results on a group or person because of an unlawful criterion, but lacks the intent of being discriminatory Is prejudice the same as discrimination?  What people say, think, and do is not consistent  Does the person discriminate?/ is the person prejudiced? Yes No Yes Prejudiced discriminator— Prejudiced non-discriminator— Prejudice person who prejudiced person who does not discriminates discriminate No Non- prejudiced Non- prejudiced non- discriminator— Non- discriminator— Non-prejudice prejudice person who person who does not discriminates discriminates Explaining prejudice and discrimination  Psychological theories o Scapegoat theory- asserts that prejudice and discrimination originate in the frustrations of people who want to blame someone else foe their problems  John Dollard—people displace their frustrations about virtually anything
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