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CHAPTER 10.docx

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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Louis Pike

CHAPTER 10: Sex and Gender SEX: THE BIOLOGICAL DIMENSION  Gender: distinctive qualities of men and women that are culturally created  Sex: biological and anatomical differences between females and males  XX – female, XY- male  Primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process  Secondary sex characteristics: the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individual’s sex (ex. large breasts, deep voice, etc)  Hermaphrodites/Transsexuals o Hermaphrodite: person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete o Transsexual: person in whom the sex-related structures of the brain that define gender identity are opposite form the physical sex organs of the person’s body o Some societies recognize existence of three sexes: men, women, and berdaches/hijras/xaniths- biological males who behave, dress, work, and are treated in most respects as women o Transvestite: male who lives as a woman or a female who lives as man but who does not alter the genitalia  Sexual Orientation: refers to an individual’s preference for emotional- sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality) o Criteria social scientists use to classify individuals as gay, lesbian, or homosexual  Sexual attraction to persons of one’s own gender  Sexual involvement with one or more persons of one’s own gender  Self-identification as a gay, lesbian, or bisexual o Transgender: individuals whose appearance, behaviour, or self-identification does not conform to common social rules of gender expression GENDER: THE CULTURAL DIMENSION  Gender: culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with “femininity” and “masculinity”  Gender role: attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process  Gender identity: a person’s perception of the self as female or male  Body consciousness: how a person perceives and feels about his or her body  Gendered institutions: gender is one of the major ways by which social life is organized in all sectors of society  Gender belief system: includes all of the ideas regarding masculine and feminine attributes that are held to be valid in a society. This belief system is legitimated by religion, science, law, and other societal values  Sexism: the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex o Sexism directed at women has three components:  Negative attitudes toward women  Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudice  Discrimination o Patriarchy: hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men o Matriarchy: hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women GENDER STRATIFICATION IN HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES  Three factors are important in determining the gendered division of labour in a society o The type of subsistence base o The supply of and demand for labour o The extent to which women’s child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work  Subsistence refers to the means by which a society gains the basic necessities of life  Pre-Industrial Societies o Earliest known division of labour between women and men is in hunting-and-gathering societies o Pastoralism: domestication of large animals to provide food  Industrial Societies o Industrial society: factory or mechanized production has replaced agriculture as the major form of economic activity o Men breadwinners, women homemakers  Post-Industrial Societies o Post-industrial society: technology supports a service- and information-based economy o Women are in labour force, dealing with heavy burden of caring for family and meeting demands of workplace GENDER AND SOCIALIZATION  Parents and Gender Socialization o Parents act toward children on basis of child’s sex o Parents strongly influence the gender-role development of children by passing on- both overtly and covertly- their own beliefs about gender o Children’s toys reflect their parents’ gender expectations o Maintenance chores assigned to boys while domestic chores assigned to girls  Peers and Gender Socialization o Same-sex peers have a powerful effect on how children see their gender roles  Teachers, Schools, and Gender Socialization o Gender bias: showing favouritism toward one gender over the other  Mass Media and Gender Socialization CONTEMPORARY GENDER INEQUALITY  Gendered Division of Paid Work o Gender-segregated work: concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs and places of work o Occupational gender segregation contributes to stratification in society THE GENDER WAGE GAP  Wage gap: disparity between women’s and men’s earnings  Wage gap calculated by dividing women’s earning by men’s to yield a percentage also known as the earnings ratio  Pay Equity and Employment Equity o Pay equity: attempts to raise the value of the work traditionally performed by women o Employment equity: focus on ways to move women into higher-paying jobs traditionally held by men o Pay equity: (comparable worth) reflects the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker  Promotes principle of equal pay for work of equal value o Employment equity: strategy to eliminate the effects of discrimination and to fully open the competition for job opportunities to those who hav
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