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SOC103 Chapter 3 Notes.docx

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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

Chapter 3- Socialization Introduction  Peter Berger defined socialization as the process by which people learn to become members of society. (For each individual this process starts at birth and continues throughout)  The most intense period of socialization is infancy and early childhood  language is an important aspect of socialization (the first words many children say is No)  According to Eleanor Maccoby, for example, as a result of socialization, most people acquire a package if attitudes, skills and behaviours that enable them to (a) avoid deviant behaviour (b) contribute through work, to economic support of self and family (c) or m and sustain close relationships with others and (d) be able to rear children in turn  Two major accomplishments of social interaction are the development of a self-concept and the internalization of social expectations. Forms of Socialization  Socialization is complex and multidimensional  In many ways it's an umbrella concept: it takes all social contacts and continues from birth to death Primary Socialization  The most intense learning  occurs from birth through adolescence  family is the most important agent of primary socialization  both intentional and unintentional, imposed and reciprocal  Parents socialize their children intentionally in countless ways such as what to eat, wear etc.  Unintentionally socialization takes place as children learn about authority, love, class, gender etc.  the family's status in the community will affect responses of other to the child as well as where and with whom the child will play or go to school  No entirely a "top-down" process, primary socialization is largely imposed because children have less power and are less competent then others  children do not absorb life lessons from parents Secondary Socialization  An ongoing process of "recalibrating" throughout the life cycle as people anticipate and adjust to new experiences and new situations  in changing job, marrying, having children, life crises and so on, people are continually being socialized  in many ways children learn from parents but parents also learn from the children such as how to parent  In the age of all this high-tech learning will involve children teaching adults  Settersten suggests that the life course provides a lens that shifts attention from a primary focus on childhood socialization to 'what adults learn in the central settings of their lives, why they learn it and how they learn it. (in many cases what is learned in childhood is outdated by adulthood)  Status losses (divorce, death of a friend or retirement) are more likely to occur later in life (not all status losses carry regret. Some may look forward to it)  Adult socialization differs from childhood socialization because it is based on accumulated learning and previous experience.  Frances Waksler likens the difference between being born into a religion and converting from one religion to another Anticipatory Socialization  In most situations, previous experience provides the capacity to imagine new experiences, so many people become adept at anticipatory socialization.  People mentally prepare themselves for future roles and responsibilities with this method (example: college and university students acquire skills needed for their future occupat
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