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The Social World I - complete course notes

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SOC 111
Jean Golden

SOCIOLOGY is the scientific study of human behaviourIt analyzes why people feel think and act the way they do and examines the social context of behavioursWe study human behaviour toImprove the human conditionUnderstand why we do what we doWhat we can do about itHuman behaviour is patterned predictable and the result of social forcesThe process of sociology 1 Observable data factswho when what where 2 Hypothesis guessing on events and how they may be related 3 Test hypothesis research methods 4 Theory generalized explanation of why behaviours are occurringCOMMON SENSE ASSUMPTIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1 Biological perspectiveIt is a natural uncontrolled behavioureg gender roles men are innately more aggressive than womenwomen are better at rearing children due to maternal instinct Margaret Mead 19011978 found through her studies that gender roles vary crossculturally with no fixed aggression in sexes or division of labour a Arapesh neither sex aggressivemen and women similar in behavior b Mundugamor both sexes similarly aggressive sex aggressive children treated brusquely by both sexes c Tchambuli women the sexual aggressors and traders men played female rolesadorned themselves gossiped created tools etc 2 PseudopsychologicalIt is a personal characteristic of the individual that is erroneousfaultyegsuicide Emile Durkheim examined in 1867 the degree of social integration the degree to whichindividuals are tied to a group of those who attempt suicide Found the 3 types of suicide a egoistic weak social ties and connections to others lead to high suicide rates b altruistic highly integrated with a groupa selfsacrifice for the group collective violenceeg cult suicides suicide bombingsCommon sense arguments for the phenomena of suicide bombingBombers are mentally illuntrue as these individuals are removed from the groupBombers suffer extreme deprivation either absolute longstanding poverty or relative a growing gap between what people want and what they really get especially in comparison to othersuntrue as the 911 bombers were welleducated middleclass menSociological explanations for this issueThe occupation of the homeland by foreigners and their deadly increasingly violent interactions with these invadersthis undoubtedly affects the bombers behavioursIn fact it is seen that bombings are strategically planned in response to occupations to liberate territoryBoth Palestine and Israel claim a historical and religious birthright to the territoryClash of cultures between Christian West and Islam Middle East creates an issue of religious fanaticismAmerican capitalism is seen as a negative impactBrym argues thatObjectives are not always clear possibly driven by just revenge and retaliationTiming is not always strategic could be response to specific Israeli actionResults are not always successful Palestinian attacks resulted in increased responses from Israel such as the building of a barrier and heavy military presence His solution increase capacity to empathize with the other party and thus increase the likelihood of peaceful solution c anomic individual feels alienated from the surrounding worldangst social chaos dislocation 3 MoralisticIgnores social and economic forces focuses only on personal deviance of individualegcrime is often driven by necessity created by povertyC WMILLS 19161962 SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATIONThe ability to distinguish between personal troubles and public issues larger social forces and to connect societal and historical forces to ones own lifepersonal troubles are framed by public issues
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