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Ryerson University
SOC 202
Nicole Neverson

SOC202-POP CULTURE- Monday. January 28.2013  Week 3 - Historical Overview of the Field of Popular Culture and Media Effects - Chpt.2 In our last lecture, we looked at: 1) Culture as folk culture -created by the ppl. 2) Culture as mass culture –media aud. to large aud. 3) Culture as mass consumption –what we buy, listens to, eat, etc. 4) Culture as the everyday -what we do day-to-day This lecture = Interpretation  how ppl understand text   Hegemony   (Gramsci, 1981) =How ppl understand/ accept culture ~Gramsci- was political prisoner of the state b/c he spoke against how gov’t treats ppl. (Citizens) ~Talking against their (gov’t of Italy) ideology ~Italy; 1926-1936; dictatorship period  We are not brainwashed. We are not passive. -Ppl can think for them selves -Ppl don’t follow each other -Ppl understand social inequality -Wanted to understand how ppl know gov’t not treating them right, unfair, etc. -Why don’t they speak out?  The communication and interpretation of cultural messages involves acceptance and consent -Interpretation process involves “acceptance” & “consent” - Gov’t control ppl by: i.e. Force: G20 protests 1) Force -When police wear riot shield/gear in public space -Military, police, law enforcement -Use of rubber bullets/pepper spray/physical force -Dominance maintained & ppl follow gov’t -Police kept ppl locked up in an inhuman way; 2) Use of ideology in major civil institutions -Control ppl.’s thoughts i.e. religion(church) , edu. (uni.) , economy, politics, mass media -Everyday we interact/consume these institutions -If you have absolute control of these institutions you have control of ppl.’s thoughts ★▯Therefore hegemony is… subordinate group accept/consent by dominant group  Examples: Defining the popular as what makes profit ~ If it doesn’t attract large mass & make $ therefore not seen as popular -i.e. size 11 women’s shoes, they don’t carry large size at most stores This is seen as hegemony by fashion industry o TV content -Things we would like but things we would like to see that aren’t currently on TV -We don’t write a letter to TV broad casting company & ask them to show what we want in particular; instead we deal with it o Social justice movements -i.e. occupy 2011 -1% vs. 99% ; why does the lower % get to control the rest of us?!? Q-why didn’t we go to the protest like others? A-we have other responsibilities / not going to make a diff. & accept it/ don’t want to get in trouble with police/ don’t want to miss class/gov’t makes decision at end of the day __________________________________________________   Interpellation   (Althusser, 1971) ~French philosopher  What cultural texts do -It is what culture text do -What happens when text makes connection with our emotions/identities  Conditioning (the creation of subjects) -Makes us follow things we are attracted to -We are seasoned/created -Tells us how we should behave, what we should like and take value in  Example: your favourite television show or cultural product -Raptors fan ~i.e. “Hailing” a cab –“interpellation”= call out; want to be subject -- *Compression: Gramsci said we are not brainwashed.Althusser thinks we interpret text; call us-like robots -- -Also think of things we don’t like; interpellant in neg. way i.e. teaser guns – study finds… ~mostly men /new to country / have mental problem/do drugs ~98% live & 2% die ~Societal injustice by law enforcement Culture is class and capital: Alook at Bourdieu (1984) -Lived in southern part of France / he was a student from working class family  Cultural tastes Ex. arts, ads, fashion…  Class as a determining factor -Class ~ many dfn. ~ Based on available resources / edu. / $/income/social Bourdieu believes we make decisions based on class -Class we either are born into / inherit from parents -Class determines our “choice” & what we “consume” determines our behaviour -Examples: buying laptop / cellphone / when we go to museum /when we watch TV -The class one is born into determines “economic, social, and culture” therefore ‘Capital’  Capital: economic, social, and cultural -We all have diff. forms of ‘capital’ -Get Capital from parents ~ Acquire tasks ~ Diff. forms , based on these forms ~ Depends on what type of E,S,C capital you have i.e. can use E to increase S –use 1 to attain more of other ♦ Economic -Financial power; $ -Things you own ♦ Social -Ability to make communicate & nurture relations -All ppl. connected through “fb” “twitter” -Relations between ppl./groups you connect to & nurture -Network of ppl. you know and ppl. those ppl. know ♦ Cultural  -Has to do with taste/value & judgement -Do you know what… is valuable/ trends are / is meaningful in the community?
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