SOC 202 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Rupert Murdoch, Wage Labour, Feudalism

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1 Nov 2018
SOC202- Lecture 2
Lecture 2: What Is Culture? What Is Popular Culture?
History: Cultural Production From Feudalism To Capitalism (history of western pop
culture possible exam question)
Feudalism is a time where the king owned the land, peasants farmed the land.
Sometimes rented land
o Life under feudalism shouldn’t be romanticised because it was small
o It was brutal
Agricultural societies
Enclosures (fencing off common space)
Industrial Revolution
o Privatization of the means of production
o Wage labour
o Working class cultural development
o Worked 72 hours a week
o In small enclosed spaces
o Class consciousness
Working class gains
o Wages- Increased in 19th century
o Work day
o Ledite rebellion- Going in and smashing the machinery taking people’s jobs
o Lead to collectivism
Concern About “The Masses”
Leisure time and money
Police forces
Criminalization and privatization of once public activities
Rational Recreation
Appropriation of Rational Recreation-desire to educate and improve the working class
Matthew Arnold and “High-Culture”-Wanted to expose them to high-culture to transcend
them and show them their place. Afraid if unruly mass was uncivilized, chaos and
anarchy would ensue
The failure of “acculturation
Christian and Working Class Leaders shared concerns
o Mad that high class wanted stores closed Sundays, the one day they had off
The Rise Of Mass Media
Technological Development
o Transportation
o Telegraph
Entrepreneurialism and “class mobility”
Cultural producers with access to capital
o Sophisticate technology to reach large audience
o Vertically integrated production
o Monopolies
o Rupert Murdoch owned newspaper and television
Resistance And Its Commodification
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