LO1 The venture capital market and its role in the financing of new, high-risk ventures.
LO2 How securities are sold to the public and the role of investment banks in the process.
LO3 Initial public offerings and some of the costs of going public.
LO4 How rights are issued to existing shareholders and how to value those rights
Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions
1. (LO2) A company’s internally generated cash flow provides a source of equity financing. For a profitable
company, outside equity may never be needed. Debt issues are larger because large companies have the
greatest access to public debt markets (small companies tend to borrow more from private lenders). Equity
issuers are frequently small companies going public; such issues are often quite small.
2. (LO2) From the previous question, economies of scale are part of the answer. Beyond this, debt issues are
simply easier and less risky to sell from an investment bank’s perspective. The two main reasons are that very
large amounts of debt securities can be sold to a relatively small number of buyers, particularly large
institutional buyers such as pension funds and insurance companies, and debt securities are much easier to
3. (LO2) They are riskier and harder to market from an investment bank’s perspective.
4. (LO2) Yields on comparable bonds can usually be readily observed, so pricing a bond issue accurately is much
5. (LO3) It is clear that the stock was sold too cheaply, so Netscape had reason to be unhappy.
6. (LO3) No, but, in fairness, pricing the stock in such a situation is extremely difficult.
7. (LO3) It’s an important factor. Only 5 million of the shares were underpriced. The other 38 million were, in
effect, priced completely correctly.
8. (LO4) The evidence suggests that a non-underwritten rights offering might be substantially cheaper than a
cash offer. However, such offerings are rare, and there may be hidden costs or other factors not yet identified
or well understood by researchers.
9. (LO3) He could have done worse since his access to the oversubscribed and, presumably, underpriced issues
was restricted while the bulk of his funds were allocated to stocks from the undersubscribed and, quite
possibly, overpriced issues.
S15-1 Solutions to Questions and Problems
NOTE: All end of chapter problems were solved using a spreadsheet. Many problems require multiple steps. Due to
space and readability constraints, when these intermediate steps are included in this solutions manual, rounding
may appear to have occurred. However, the final answer for each problem is found without rounding during any
step in the problem.
a. The new market value will be the current shares outstanding times the stock price plus the rights offered
times the rights price, so:
New market value = 500,000($81) + 60,000($70) = $44,700,000
b. The number of rights associated with the old shares is the number of shares outstanding divided by the
rights offered, so:
Number of rights needed = 500,000 old shares/60,000 new shares = 8.33 rights per new share
c. The new price of the stock will be the new market value of the company divided by the total number of
shares outstanding after the rights offer, which will be:
P X $44,700,000/(500,000 + 60,000) = $79.82
d. The value of the right
Value of a right = $81.00 – 79.82 = $1.18
e. A rights offering usually costs less, it protects the proportionate interests of existing share-holders and
also protects against underpricing.
a. The maximum subscription price is the current stock price, or $53. The minimum price is anything
greater than $0.
b. The number of new shares will be the amount raised divided by the subscription price, so:
Number of new shares = $40,000,000/$48 = 833,333 shares
And the number of rights needed to buy one share will be the current shares outstanding divided by the
number of new shares offered, so:
Number of rights needed = 4,100,000 shares outstanding/833,333 new shares = 4.92
c. A shareholder can buy 4.92 rights on shares for:
4.92($53) = $260.76
The shareholder can exercise these rights for $48, at a total cost of:
$260.76 + 48 = $308.76
The investor will then have:
Ex-rights shares = 1 + 4.92
S15-2 Ex-rights shares = 5.92
The ex-rights price per share is:
PX= [4.92($53) + $48]/5.92 = $52.16
So, the value of a right is:
Value of a right = $53 – 52.16 = $0.84
d. Before the offer, a shareholder will have the shares owned at the current market price, or:
Portfolio value = (1,000 shares)($53) = $53,000
After the rights offer, the share price will fall, but the shareholder will also hold the rights, so:
Portfolio value = (1,000 shares)($52.16) + (1,000 rights)($0.84) = $53,000
3. (LO4) Using the equation we derived in Problem 2, part c to calculate the price of the stock ex-rights, we can
find the number of shares a shareholder will have ex-rights, which is:
PX= $74.80 = [N($81) + $40]/(N + 1)
N = 5.613
The number of new shares is the amount raised divided by the per-share subscription price, so:
Number of new shares = $20,000,000/$40 = 500,000
And the number of old shares is the number of new shares times the number of shares ex-rights, so:
Number of old shares = 5.613(500,000) = 2,806,452
4. (LO3) If you receive 1,000 shares of each, the profit is:
Profit = 1,000($7) – 1,000($5) = $2,000
Since you will only receive one-half of the shares of the oversubscribed issue, your profit will be:
Expected profit = 500($7) – 1,000($5) = –$1,500
This is an example of the winner’s curse.
5. (LO3) Using X to stand for the required sale proceeds, the equation to calculate the total sale proceeds,
including floatation costs is:
X(1 – .09) = $60,000,000
X = $65,934,066 required total proceeds from sale.
So the number of shares offered is the total amount raised divided by the offer price, which is:
Number of shares offered = $65,934,066/$21 = 3,139,717
S15-3 6. (LO3) This is basically the same as the previous problem, except we need to include the $900,000 of expenses
in the amount the company needs to raise, so:
X(1 – .09) = ($60,000,000 + 900,000)
X = $66,923,077 required total proceeds from sale.
Number of shares offered = $66,923,077/$21 = 3,186,813
7. (LO3) We need to calculate the net amount raised and the costs associated with the offer. The net amount
raised is the number of shares offered times the price received by the company, minus the costs associated with
the offer, so:
Net amount raised = (10,000,000 shares)($18.20) – 900,000 – 320,000 = $180,780,000
The company received $180,780,000 from the stock offering. Now we can calculate the direct costs. Part of the
direct costs are given in the problem, but the company also had to pay the underwriters. The stock was offered
at $20 per share, and the company received $18.20 per share. The difference, which is the underwriters spread,
is also a direct cost. The total direct costs were:
Total direct costs = $900,000 + ($20 – 18.20)(10,000,000 shares) = $18,900,000
We are given part of the indirect costs in the problem. Another indirect cost is the immediate price
appreciation. The total indirect costs were:
Total indirect costs = $320,000 + ($25.60 – 20)(10,000,000 shares) = $56,320,000
This makes the total costs:
Total costs = $18,900,000 + 56,320,000 = $75,220,000
The floatation costs as a percentage of the amount raised is the total cost divided by the amount raised, so:
Flotation cost percentage = $75,220,000/$180,780,000 = .4161 or 41.61%
8. (LO3) The number of rights needed per new share is:
Number of rights needed = 120,000 old shares/25,000 new shares = 4.8 rights per new share.
Using P RO as the rights-on price, and P Ss the subscription price, we can express the price per share of the
stock ex-rights as:
PX= [NP RO + PS]/(N + 1)
a. PX= [4.8($94) + $94]/(4.80 + 1) = $94.00; No change.
b. PX= [4.8($94) + $90]/(4.80 + 1) = $93.31; Price drops by $0.69 per share.
c. PX= [4.8($94) + $85]/(4.80 + 1) = $92.45; Price drops by $1.55 p