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What are the politics of representation?
Should pop cult be free of politics? Why or why not?
What are the consequences of dominant groups being responsible for and having more control over
the resources to represent minority group identities?
Is it possible for media representations to be unbiased?
How are my culture’s perspectives represented in the popular culture I am attracted to?
Representation and Framing
Meaning and language are connected to culture
- communicates messages
- about reality; not always realistic or accurate
- claims = own representations of reality
The ‘what’ of texts
- Concentrates on “what”
- E.g. filmmakers were trying to represent reality of Internet in a
documentary: Growing Up Online
- Basic summaries of a text
Examples: Growing Up Online
Chapter 4 of textbook – representation of historical theory and
approaches to critiquing the production of culture
The Persuaders- represented behind the scenes processes of the
marketing and advertising industry what we’re interested in
Focuses on organization
- how representations are organized
The ‘how’ of texts
- how text are organized
Boundaries and limits
-set up/define what boundaries are of a given representation tell the reader
where this representation begins and ends
- other things excluded, this is what’s included
Framing relies on ideology
- frames rely on mental constructs
- schemes, way of looking at the world and organizing the world
Examples: Growing Up Online – Internet is framed as a potentially fatal
communication tool that creates a generation gap between teens and their
parents, Internet is framed as a technology that teens are naive about (don’t
critique it), framed as the “enemy” of parents who want to gain control of
the leisure time of their kids
Chapter 4 of textbook – frames struggle between cultural and
The Persuaders – advertising system framed as a magic system
that is only interested in making profit through manipulating the
desires of the audience
News Values (Knight, 2004)
- Youth are framed as being in crisis, “problem group”, criminals, potential criminals, threat
to social order
- Hard news switched to “infotainment”
- Media uses 3 things to determine what news is: (news about war, politics, conflicts…)
- Breaking news; about the here and now
- Difficult for news anchor to say what’s going on (limited details)