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SOC 300 - Notes - What is Diversity - Jan 22.docx

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SOC 300

SOC 300 – Sociology of Diversity Tuesday, January 22, 2013: WHAT IS DIVERSITY? 1) what is diversity? 2) what is citizenship? 3) what are human rights? 4) Canada’s Diversity Model 5) towards a post-nation 6) Toronto’s diversity 1)) what is DIVERSITY? - race - access to resources - ethnicity - social-economical status - family structure (Canada has regional specifics) - sexuality - class diversity (social location) 2)) what is CITIZENSHIP? - no such thing as citizenship until the events of the French Revolution (1789) - monarch had absolute control - created laws which they themselves may not follow but was made to impose upon his subjects (the people were “subjected” to the King’s whim and will) - everyone and everything (i.e. land) was the property of the monarch - land was parceled out to nobility (family and friends of the monarch) so that they may reside on the land so long as they remained in the good favour of the monarch - (as supported by the Catholic church) - this did not came free, the church collected taxes from the monarch - in turn they made the claim that the monarch (Royalty) was God-given - this was a religious discourse created to keep the subjects in place - these structures are similarly seen with the Pope and his followers - with the French Revolution, the people (particularly the Bourgeoisie) started to question the absolute power of the monarch this would lead to the creation of right for the people - 16 century: capitalism at its peak - the Bourgeoisie rebelled because they wanted power that could not be attained even with the new and large fortunes they were obtaining - they aimed for LIBERAL revolution (as imposed by the Enlightenment as legitimized by capitalism) - with the over-thrown of the French monarch (King Louie), he was given two options: 1) demoted from political power and become just a figure head, or 2) death - King Louie refused the offer and took his chances - this is why there is no monarch in place in France + SIMILARLY: during the British Civil War (prior to the French Revolution), the monarch were given the same options of either being demoted or facing death, they chose the former because they would still receive and retain property as part of the agreement - this is why there still exists a monarch in Britain - through the revolution came the creation of the “House of Commons” - men who earned their own wealth and whom were voted into power by the common people to create laws - originally, this was the role of the “House of Lords” - however, filled with men that were family and friend of monarch who gained their wealth through the taxation of the people, they had different interests - the “House of Commons” eventually became more powerful than the “House of Lords” - Canada  citizenship created after WWII (1947) - prior to, citizenship via Britain: - people who immigrated must assimilate to the culture of the white, British people (this included their language, values, norms, and most importantly their religion) - those who did not fit the British/Anglo-Saxon image were perceived inferior, degenerates, and foreign - CITIZENSHIP: who can belong, who belongs, and who cannot belong - various countries define citizenship differently: - Europe: blood and/or ancestry - USA: soil and/or territory (i.e. based on birth within USA) - Canada: ideology (i.e. promise to share values or commitment to law the rules and laws) - Colonialism: open to those of the former empire (namely how UK operates) - UNIVERSAL CITIZENSHIP: - based upon liberal revolution - “colour blind, gender blind, and focuses on the individual” - in reality, they are regarded through the male-white gaze 3)) what are HUMAN RIGHTS? - rights are a social and legal contracts with
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