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SOC 470 (43)
Lecture

Toronto's Three Cities and Income Disparity

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 470
Professor
Cheryl Teelucksingh
Semester
Fall

Description
SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture Toronto's  Three  Cities  and  Income  Disparity   Lecture  Outline   1.  Income  Disparity   2.  Hulchanski’s  Three  Cities     3.  Toronto  -­‐  the  Divided  City   a)  City  versus  Suburbs   b)  The  Working  Poor   4.  Policy  Issues  –  What  can  be  done?   • Huge inequalities in the city • Role of urban/rural economy • Breaking down income disparities • Then look at arguments presented on readings • • Hulchanski and spacial implications • • Opportunity depends on where you live • Issue of the working poor and the dynamics of this concept - how people have arrived at this situation • 1. Income disparity -­‐ Gaps  between  the  rich  and  the  poor  are  not  simply  about  differences  in  incomes,  but   differences  in  how  each  group’s  income  situation  changes  from  year  to  year.   -­‐ Those  who  are  affluent  are  gaining  a  larger  proportion  of  the  total  incomes.   o In  2006,  the  top  20%  of  all  Canadians  earned  47  percent  of  all  income,  while  the   lowest  20%  of  households  earned  4%  of  the  total.  Poor  are  getting  a  small  piece  of   the  pie.  For  example,  the  outrages  salaries  of  CEO’s.   o Social  stratification  –  refers  to  the  way  in  which  society  is  organized  in  layers  or   strata.   • Situated within a an urban political economy theory • Income differences • Huge gaps n opportunities and resources in throw who are seen to be Richard no these who are seen to be poor • Usually not as significant as they are becoming today - not just income differences that will always be there but the opportunities - piece of the pie • Difficulty of mobility • About not just income, but the changes in situations - some people always going to feel challenged - but others getting richer and richer 1 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • Ex. Occupy movement - unhappy with this • 20% of the population earned 40% of the income - the people at the top • Lower 20% earned only 4% of the total income • BIG difference in terms of opportunity and access to income • Slowly taking up more of that total income • Tend to look at this interns of social stratification • Hierarchies • Triangle - rich are small part at top • Control of resources in hands of few • See problems with access and mobility issues -­‐ This  figure  portrays  the  distributions  in  income  in  the  city  of  Toronto   o It  reveals  that  over  time  more  Toronto  neighbourhoods  are  linked  with  very  high   incomes  or  very  low  incomes.   o There  are  a  number  of  people  who  are  doing  really,  really  well,  and  that’s  good,  but   it  shouldn’t  be  at  the  cost  of  people  who  are  struggling,”  Jonathan  Mousley,  an   Ontario  government  worker     • Not interested in percentages, more interested in trends • Those with high incomes- their incomes continuing to increase - they will be able to continue doing what they are doing • On the other side see increase in the amount of people who are very poor • What is happening in the middle with the middle class income going down • Number and promotion of income that they are able to get • Neighbourhoods linked to low and high incomes increasing • Middle decreasing • Those who are doing well are doing really well but at the expense of those who a not 2 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • Gentrification - more affluent people moving into places that were lower income - extension of their reach - taking up more geography and opportunities -­‐ From  a  urban  political  economy  perspective,  those  with  more  income  are  better   able  to  control  resources  in  the  city  to  protect  their  own  lifestyles  and  economic   interests.   -­‐ Affluent  stakeholders  are  able  to  use  their  power  to  influence  urban  growth   regimes.   o From  the  perspective  of  gentrification  –  those  with  income  and  resources  are  able   to  transform  lower  income  and  ethnic  spaces.  In  this  sense,  the  affluences  of  the   few  has  consequences  for  many  people.     -­‐ David  Hulchanski’s  study  on  the  3  cities  has  focused  on  examining  income  changes  over   time  in  Toronto  and  the  consequences  for  Toronto  neighbourhoods     • In terms of how power operates • Appreciated that fact that some people are able to control resources that are in their interest and can also extend their power to lobby for their interests • Ex. Lobbying for no condos in a neighbourhood - powerful homeowners and politicians siding with them for votes • Hulchanski - changes of neighbourhoods overtime 2.  Hulchanski’s  Three  Cities  Trends   -­‐ There  are  3  cities  (or  groups  of  neighbourhoods)  that  are  changing  at  different  rates  and   the  income  gap  between  cities  is  moving  further  apart  (=greater  polarization).   -­‐ Between  1970-­‐2005,  middle  income  areas  in  Toronto  have  been  reduced.   -­‐ Lower  income  areas  have  moved  from  south  of  Bloor  to  suburban  regions  (northwest  and   northeast)   o •The  report  focuses  on  who  lives  where  based  on  socio-­‐economic  status   o •And  how  the  status  of  neighbourhoods  have  changed  over  35  years  (1970-­‐2005)   o •The  trends  have  been  sudden  and  have  great  impact  on  Toronto  residents.     • Three cities emerging in TO • Big difference from our slogans that we are this big happy collective whole • Don't make sense to talk about the city as a whole because of these significant changes happening at different rates and creating different opportunities • Using his analysis to say that the polarization has consequences for other things lie, school systems and types of children sent to them • Why significant that there is a shrinking middle class? • More people are going to be poor • The opportunities that the middle class thought they were going to have they won't • Social mobility becomes much harder 3 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • Whole belief that if you are a middle class person you have some decision making power and that you are stable • Middle class values etc • Situated in the suburbs historically • Heterosexual couple etc - Canadian dream - the ideal - what everyone saw as possible • This becoming impossible • You are either making millions or you are struggling • Dismal outlook on our futures • Lower income areas have moved • Down town typically where people started • But now suburbs are where lower income issues are situated City #1 -Neighbourhoods found in the central city; close to the subway lines - high incomes; higher property values -Areas represents 20% of the city City #2 -Very little change in the incomes in this area -Scattered throughout the city – represents 20% = normally equated with middle-class areas City #3 -Predominantly, lower income and suburban – strong clusters in northwest and northeast of the city -United Ways – 13 priority neighbourhoods are all located in city #3 4 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • City 1 • used to be not as large (rosedale forest hill, royal York area) • Now alot of gentrified areas considered 1 • Higher property values • Higher incomes • City 2 • 40% of city • Middle class • Pockets spread out • All over • Red city 3 40% of city • Highly dense • Packed in • Low property values • Poor transportation - easier access • 13 priority area all in city 3 - violence, poor schools, run down ares etc • Public transit access poor Huchanski presentation -­‐ lhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-9cTmhzZJ0 – Hulchanski on TVO the Agenda • Change within the city of Toronto • Is change too rapid? • How they r trending over 35 years • 40% of census tracts decreasing over time, and 20% increasing • Has all to do with affordable housing (1) • Turning off of social housing • Labour market (2) • Cuts in social support (3) • Discrimination (4) • Not many whites in city 3 • Schooling in city 3 is in trouble - parents don't have time for their children - need more services too - built for middle income people who have cars and such • Disappearing middle class • Difference between middle income and middle class • Middle income defined as within 20% of average income • Quite large - 2/3 in 1980 and now less than 1/3 • Always been receiving immigrants - if anything in past immigrants where poorest - different economy then though • Alot of the low income people think they are middle class • Resentment because people know something is wrong but not what • Income gap is growing and middle class's disappearing - growing lower • Always will be and has been inequality • But now
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