Class Notes (834,152)
Canada (508,380)
Sociology (2,254)
SOC 470 (43)

Toronto's Three Cities and Income Disparity

9 Pages
Unlock Document

SOC 470
Cheryl Teelucksingh

SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture Toronto's  Three  Cities  and  Income  Disparity   Lecture  Outline   1.  Income  Disparity   2.  Hulchanski’s  Three  Cities     3.  Toronto  -­‐  the  Divided  City   a)  City  versus  Suburbs   b)  The  Working  Poor   4.  Policy  Issues  –  What  can  be  done?   • Huge inequalities in the city • Role of urban/rural economy • Breaking down income disparities • Then look at arguments presented on readings • • Hulchanski and spacial implications • • Opportunity depends on where you live • Issue of the working poor and the dynamics of this concept - how people have arrived at this situation • 1. Income disparity -­‐ Gaps  between  the  rich  and  the  poor  are  not  simply  about  differences  in  incomes,  but   differences  in  how  each  group’s  income  situation  changes  from  year  to  year.   -­‐ Those  who  are  affluent  are  gaining  a  larger  proportion  of  the  total  incomes.   o In  2006,  the  top  20%  of  all  Canadians  earned  47  percent  of  all  income,  while  the   lowest  20%  of  households  earned  4%  of  the  total.  Poor  are  getting  a  small  piece  of   the  pie.  For  example,  the  outrages  salaries  of  CEO’s.   o Social  stratification  –  refers  to  the  way  in  which  society  is  organized  in  layers  or   strata.   • Situated within a an urban political economy theory • Income differences • Huge gaps n opportunities and resources in throw who are seen to be Richard no these who are seen to be poor • Usually not as significant as they are becoming today - not just income differences that will always be there but the opportunities - piece of the pie • Difficulty of mobility • About not just income, but the changes in situations - some people always going to feel challenged - but others getting richer and richer 1 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • Ex. Occupy movement - unhappy with this • 20% of the population earned 40% of the income - the people at the top • Lower 20% earned only 4% of the total income • BIG difference in terms of opportunity and access to income • Slowly taking up more of that total income • Tend to look at this interns of social stratification • Hierarchies • Triangle - rich are small part at top • Control of resources in hands of few • See problems with access and mobility issues -­‐ This  figure  portrays  the  distributions  in  income  in  the  city  of  Toronto   o It  reveals  that  over  time  more  Toronto  neighbourhoods  are  linked  with  very  high   incomes  or  very  low  incomes.   o There  are  a  number  of  people  who  are  doing  really,  really  well,  and  that’s  good,  but   it  shouldn’t  be  at  the  cost  of  people  who  are  struggling,”  Jonathan  Mousley,  an   Ontario  government  worker     • Not interested in percentages, more interested in trends • Those with high incomes- their incomes continuing to increase - they will be able to continue doing what they are doing • On the other side see increase in the amount of people who are very poor • What is happening in the middle with the middle class income going down • Number and promotion of income that they are able to get • Neighbourhoods linked to low and high incomes increasing • Middle decreasing • Those who are doing well are doing really well but at the expense of those who a not 2 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • Gentrification - more affluent people moving into places that were lower income - extension of their reach - taking up more geography and opportunities -­‐ From  a  urban  political  economy  perspective,  those  with  more  income  are  better   able  to  control  resources  in  the  city  to  protect  their  own  lifestyles  and  economic   interests.   -­‐ Affluent  stakeholders  are  able  to  use  their  power  to  influence  urban  growth   regimes.   o From  the  perspective  of  gentrification  –  those  with  income  and  resources  are  able   to  transform  lower  income  and  ethnic  spaces.  In  this  sense,  the  affluences  of  the   few  has  consequences  for  many  people.     -­‐ David  Hulchanski’s  study  on  the  3  cities  has  focused  on  examining  income  changes  over   time  in  Toronto  and  the  consequences  for  Toronto  neighbourhoods     • In terms of how power operates • Appreciated that fact that some people are able to control resources that are in their interest and can also extend their power to lobby for their interests • Ex. Lobbying for no condos in a neighbourhood - powerful homeowners and politicians siding with them for votes • Hulchanski - changes of neighbourhoods overtime 2.  Hulchanski’s  Three  Cities  Trends   -­‐ There  are  3  cities  (or  groups  of  neighbourhoods)  that  are  changing  at  different  rates  and   the  income  gap  between  cities  is  moving  further  apart  (=greater  polarization).   -­‐ Between  1970-­‐2005,  middle  income  areas  in  Toronto  have  been  reduced.   -­‐ Lower  income  areas  have  moved  from  south  of  Bloor  to  suburban  regions  (northwest  and   northeast)   o •The  report  focuses  on  who  lives  where  based  on  socio-­‐economic  status   o •And  how  the  status  of  neighbourhoods  have  changed  over  35  years  (1970-­‐2005)   o •The  trends  have  been  sudden  and  have  great  impact  on  Toronto  residents.     • Three cities emerging in TO • Big difference from our slogans that we are this big happy collective whole • Don't make sense to talk about the city as a whole because of these significant changes happening at different rates and creating different opportunities • Using his analysis to say that the polarization has consequences for other things lie, school systems and types of children sent to them • Why significant that there is a shrinking middle class? • More people are going to be poor • The opportunities that the middle class thought they were going to have they won't • Social mobility becomes much harder 3 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • Whole belief that if you are a middle class person you have some decision making power and that you are stable • Middle class values etc • Situated in the suburbs historically • Heterosexual couple etc - Canadian dream - the ideal - what everyone saw as possible • This becoming impossible • You are either making millions or you are struggling • Dismal outlook on our futures • Lower income areas have moved • Down town typically where people started • But now suburbs are where lower income issues are situated City #1 -Neighbourhoods found in the central city; close to the subway lines - high incomes; higher property values -Areas represents 20% of the city City #2 -Very little change in the incomes in this area -Scattered throughout the city – represents 20% = normally equated with middle-class areas City #3 -Predominantly, lower income and suburban – strong clusters in northwest and northeast of the city -United Ways – 13 priority neighbourhoods are all located in city #3 4 SOC 470 Week 9 Lecture • City 1 • used to be not as large (rosedale forest hill, royal York area) • Now alot of gentrified areas considered 1 • Higher property values • Higher incomes • City 2 • 40% of city • Middle class • Pockets spread out • All over • Red city 3 40% of city • Highly dense • Packed in • Low property values • Poor transportation - easier access • 13 priority area all in city 3 - violence, poor schools, run down ares etc • Public transit access poor Huchanski presentation -­‐ l – Hulchanski on TVO the Agenda • Change within the city of Toronto • Is change too rapid? • How they r trending over 35 years • 40% of census tracts decreasing over time, and 20% increasing • Has all to do with affordable housing (1) • Turning off of social housing • Labour market (2) • Cuts in social support (3) • Discrimination (4) • Not many whites in city 3 • Schooling in city 3 is in trouble - parents don't have time for their children - need more services too - built for middle income people who have cars and such • Disappearing middle class • Difference between middle income and middle class • Middle income defined as within 20% of average income • Quite large - 2/3 in 1980 and now less than 1/3 • Always been receiving immigrants - if anything in past immigrants where poorest - different economy then though • Alot of the low income people think they are middle class • Resentment because people know something is wrong but not what • Income gap is growing and middle class's disappearing - growing lower • Always will be and has been inequality • But now
More Less

Related notes for SOC 470

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.