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Ryerson University
SOC 470
Cheryl Dyson

Soc 470 Lecture 2 September 11 2011 THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF TORONTO COLONIAL ERA WORLD WAR 2 Components of a city: population, density, and government - Europeans originally had a good relationship with the Aboriginals - The Humber River was a shortcut to get up north, so already Toronto becomes key because of its location, allows access to Northern Ontario where there are a lot of furs and mining resources, and later on Toronto is also key because of access to out west - Knowledge from the first nations people about how to move around where the furs are, are seen as very valuable to the French - The French bring Catholic missionaries and other things that contribute to changing the way of life of the Aboriginals sets in relations of power - There are tensions between the French and the Hurons and Iroquios and they start having wars - Europeans also bring with them diseases that the Aboriginals become exposed to and lots of people die - One group of Aboriginals end up dominating the group, the Mississaugas, who are able to win out - The French come first, just to take the furs back not to settle but to take from Canada and take back to Europe in the same way that Europeans would have taken sugar and other products back to Europe - The French start to think about how theyre going to establish the fur trade but what happens is the British come in - The tension between Britain and the French plays out in early Canada and ultimately the French end up going to Quebec with most of Ontario overthrown with British presence - What ends up becoming Toronto is closely linked to all of these wars and tensions that happens every where else - The British move towards permanent settlement in Toronto - They decide on Toronto because of the American Revolution because all of the Americans that side with the British come up to Canada, and the anti- British becomes the United States - The area known as Toronto becomes associated with a very strong British tension that continues with the Americans south of the border - This is the first thing that contributes to British population, they are able to get support and gain population from Americans - The second thing is the TORONTO PURCHASE in 1787 - The British purchased 14 kilometers of land from the Mississaugas, so the Toronto Purchase involves the purchase of land from the Mississaugas by the British, this land runs from Etobicoke to Scarborough - All the early settlement in Toronto is along the water because it is easy to get in and out, rivers seen as key transportation routes - The Mississaugas are only given a fraction of what the land is worth, and by taking away access to the waterways, the Aboriginals cannot do hunting and fishing as they were traditionally doing within this area - By this point we have a strong British presence in Ontario and Toronto in particular, but the question remains why not go to Kingston or another popular town - The first Lieutenant Governor of Canada sees some significance in Toronto - Lieutenant Governor John Graves, establishes the town of York in 1793 - Toronto is originally called York - We get the first sort of move towards getting some of the things that are important towards urbanization and creating a city of course a town is less significant than a city - Early immigration is related to these wars and conflicts happening somewhere else that makes people want to leave where they live and come to Toronto especially during the war of 1812 - The Americans start attacking what they see as a British presence in Canada - The most significant change is after the war, there are a lot more European immigrants that decide to settle here, and these immigrants are other Brits, and the Irish not necessarily military people, farmers - Europe starts the industrial revolution after the war, which moves people out of rural existence into working for other people in factories this happens in Europe in the early 1800s industrialization in Canada and Toronto happens a lot later so people who dont like this in Europe decide to come over to Canada to see what their chances are so we get different classes of British people coming over willing to do agriculture and different trades - The Ireland there has always been tension between the Protestants and Catholics the Catholics there are a religious minority this is still going on today so a lot of Catholic Irish wanted to leave Ireland and come to Toronto - Toronto is all about whats going on in other places - As a result of the end of the war of 1812 is we get more diversity - Small black and Jewish population starting to emerge - Who is going to be the controlling force? - Toronto becomes a hub for agriculture, because of St.Lawrence market that becomes a large part of the town or Yorks role in supplying other regions and becoming a hub - As the Irish come over the orange Order is an order in the UK that promotes a very Protestant British background, meant to exclude people not of an Anglican background - We end up having different Orange Orders starting up - Irish become the bottom of the social hierarchy - Orangeville was seen where there werent a lot of Irish Catholics, and some of the groups could escape - Toronto shifts from a town to a city very quickly as more and more people come over - Quite a short span of time 1793-1834 Toronto becomes a city - What ends up being part of this is the fact that the increase in population following these wars and the move to having a city was to come up with a government to deal with the population growth, cant just have these Orange Orders everywhere - This transformation from being a colonial outpost (sending furs), starts to change when we get our first Mayor connected to establishing our first form of government that will control things - The first Mayors name is William Lion Mackenzie - Transportation is a huge part of what makes Toronto a great city - Toronto changes significantly and is a huge threat to Montral - 1851, beginning of railway construction in Toronto a lot of labor and work - Construction of railway lines allows Toronto more economic opportunities and to become more independent from Britain not relying on them for trading everything - In 1867 Canada becomes a separate country from Britain and France- confederation - Transportation and industry is what makes Toronto into the city it is today - So we have the transportation and railways, now we need jobs - Toronto is a grungy city in the beginning because of everything being clustered close together, pollution etc. - Industrialization in Toronto happens in 2 stages, not all at once - The best way to think about industrialization is to think about manufacturing, we start producing the goods we were buying from Europe - At first in order for industry and manufacturing to successfully function in Toronto we needed to improve the demand for people buying stuff here, people are still buying most things from Europe - We had to make the quality of products just as good so we improved the quality of goods - Initially very small factories, products being produced were very specialized - Early products made in factories: clothing very basic need - In this first stage we focused on improving quality - The second stage was increasing supply - First there were very few industrys producing good stuff, and then they increase the number of businesses - There werent initially a lot of businesses until they knew people would be buying stuff here - Increasing supply and demand allowed them to hire more people and created lots of jobs paid work in these factories as well as building these factories printing and publishing was also key - Beer production and alcohol production were also happening in this area - Clothing and things supporting agriculture were the very important first businesses - Every day household items were being made in these factories, didnt have to get all of these things in Europe people could start creating a life here people had the option of making a wage in the factories - Industrialization becomes very key to changing the relationships within households not all work happening on the farm now and the introduction of a more sophisticated understanding of class those people starting up the businesses and factories become entrepreneurs - new industrial elite - People working in factories are working long hours but the factories are at least close to their homes so conditions for working class arent great but there is lots of opportunities for people to start up new businesses and factories - Start to learn to build houses away from factories separation of land use starts to come into play- residential, commercial, and industrial space - One of the first commercial strips to emerge is Yonge street, people have always been shopping there it is only now we have started to revitalize it - Some of the nicer neighborhoods were those farther away from industry Rosedale, Forest Hill they didnt have to deal with the pollution and the houses not built as close together - People living right near these factories The Ward was initially for immigrants and workers, people of lower class now seen as cooler - We get the ROM in the early 1900s and the AGO, start promoting our culture - These luxury industries are v
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