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SOC 470 Lecture Notes - Toronto Purchase, Industrial Revolution, Northern Ontario

Course Code
SOC 470
Cheryl Dyson

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Soc 470
Lecture 2
September 11 2011
Components of a city: population, density, and government
- Europeans originally had a good relationship with the Aboriginals
- The Humber River was a shortcut to get up north, so already Toronto
becomes key because of its location, allows access to Northern Ontario where
there are a lot of furs and mining resources, and later on Toronto is also key
because of access to out west
- Knowledge from the first nations people about how to move around where
the furs are, are seen as very valuable to the French
- The French bring Catholic missionaries and other things that contribute to
changing the way of life of the Aboriginals sets in relations of power
- There are tensions between the French and the Hurons and Iroquios and
they start having wars
- Europeans also bring with them diseases that the Aboriginals become
exposed to and lots of people die
- One group of Aboriginals end up dominating the group, the Mississauga’s,
who are able to win out
- The French come first, just to take the furs back not to settle but to take from
Canada and take back to Europe in the same way that Europeans would have
taken sugar and other products back to Europe
- The French start to think about how they’re going to establish the fur trade
but what happens is the British come in
- The tension between Britain and the French plays out in early Canada and
ultimately the French end up going to Quebec with most of Ontario
overthrown with British presence
- What ends up becoming Toronto is closely linked to all of these wars and
tensions that happens every where else
- The British move towards permanent settlement in ‘Toronto’
- They decide on Toronto because of the American Revolution because all of
the Americans that side with the British come up to Canada, and the anti-
British becomes the United States
- The area known as Toronto becomes associated with a very strong British
tension that continues with the Americans south of the border
- This is the first thing that contributes to British population, they are able to
get support and gain population from Americans
- The second thing is the TORONTO PURCHASE in 1787
- The British purchased 14 kilometers of land from the Mississauga’s, so the
Toronto Purchase involves the purchase of land from the Mississauga’s by
the British, this land runs from Etobicoke to Scarborough

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- All the early settlement in Toronto is along the water because it is easy to get
in and out, rivers seen as key transportation routes
- The Mississauga’s are only given a fraction of what the land is worth, and by
taking away access to the waterways, the Aboriginals cannot do hunting and
fishing as they were traditionally doing within this area
- By this point we have a strong British presence in Ontario and Toronto in
particular, but the question remains why not go to Kingston or another
popular town
- The first Lieutenant Governor of Canada sees some significance in Toronto
- Lieutenant Governor John Graves, establishes the town of York in 1793
- Toronto is originally called York
- We get the first sort of move towards getting some of the things that are
important towards urbanization and creating a city of course a town is less
significant than a city
- Early immigration is related to these wars and conflicts happening
somewhere else that makes people want to leave where they live and come
to Toronto especially during the war of 1812
- The American’s start attacking what they see as a British presence in Canada
- The most significant change is after the war, there are a lot more European
immigrants that decide to settle here, and these immigrants are other Brits,
and the Irish not necessarily military people, farmers
- Europe starts the industrial revolution after the war, which moves people out
of rural existence into working for other people in factories this happens in
Europe in the early 1800’s – industrialization in Canada and Toronto
happens a lot later so people who don’t like this in Europe decide to come
over to Canada to see what their chances are so we get different classes of
British people coming over willing to do agriculture and different trades
- The Ireland there has always been tension between the Protestants and
Catholics the Catholics there are a religious minority this is still going on
today so a lot of Catholic Irish wanted to leave Ireland and come to Toronto
- Toronto is all about what’s going on in other places
- As a result of the end of the war of 1812 is we get more diversity
- Small black and Jewish population starting to emerge
- Who is going to be the controlling force?
- Toronto becomes a hub for agriculture, because of St.Lawrence market that
becomes a large part of the town or York’s role in supplying other regions
and becoming a hub
- As the Irish come over the orange Order is an order in the UK that promotes
a very Protestant British background, meant to exclude people not of an
Anglican background
- We end up having different Orange Orders starting up
- Irish become the bottom of the social hierarchy
- Orangeville was seen where there weren’t a lot of Irish Catholics, and some of
the groups could escape
- Toronto shifts from a town to a city very quickly as more and more people
come over

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- Quite a short span of time 1793-1834 Toronto becomes a city
- What ends up being part of this is the fact that the increase in population
following these wars and the move to having a city was to come up with a
government to deal with the population growth, can’t just have these Orange
Orders everywhere
- This transformation from being a colonial outpost (sending furs), starts to
change when we get our first Mayor connected to establishing our first form
of government that will control things
- The first Mayor’s name is William Lion Mackenzie
- Transportation is a huge part of what makes Toronto a great city
- Toronto changes significantly and is a huge threat to Montréal
- 1851, beginning of railway construction in Toronto a lot of labor and work
- Construction of railway lines allows Toronto more economic opportunities
and to become more independent from Britain not relying on them for
trading everything
- In 1867 Canada becomes a separate country from Britain and France-
- Transportation and industry is what makes Toronto into the city it is today
- So we have the transportation and railways, now we need jobs
- Toronto is a grungy city in the beginning because of everything being
clustered close together, pollution etc.
- Industrialization in Toronto happens in 2 stages, not all at once
- The best way to think about industrialization is to think about
manufacturing, we start producing the goods we were buying from Europe
- At first in order for industry and manufacturing to successfully function in
Toronto we needed to improve the demand for people buying stuff here,
people are still buying most things from Europe
- We had to make the quality of products just as good so we improved the
quality of goods
- Initially very small factories, products being produced were very specialized
- Early products made in factories: clothing very basic need
- In this first stage we focused on improving quality
- The second stage was increasing supply
- First there were very few industry’s producing good stuff, and then they
increase the number of businesses
- There weren’t initially a lot of businesses until they knew people would be
buying stuff here
- Increasing supply and demand allowed them to hire more people and created
lots of jobs paid work in these factories as well as building these factories
printing and publishing was also key
- Beer production and alcohol production were also happening in this area
- Clothing and things supporting agriculture were the very important first
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