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HIST 1253 (10)

Jan 23rd & 28th.docx

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HIST 1253
Charles Baxter

First Nations and Confederation January 23 rd o Territorial expansion (1867-1873) – number of First Nations people in the Dominion grew from around 30,000 to over 100,000 (vast majority living west of Ontario) o Great diversity in language and culture among First Nations o Focus on First Nations of the plains regions; groups such as: - Plains Cree - Saulteaux (Western Ojibwa) - Assiniboine - The Blackfood Confederacy o BC joined Canada in 1871 o PEI joined Canada in 1873 o The government had a lack of knowledge on how complex the First Nations truly were o Some First Nations had regular contact with non-First Nations, whereas there were others who had no contact with non-First-Nations, yet they were aware of their existence o The government found it harder come up with a policy surrounding all First Nations more difficult than expected o The federal government needed to come up with regulations, policies and even laws around First Nations - These policies were crated for the benefit of the non-native majority - Policies weren’t designed to benefit the First Nations o This was all affected by what happens in Canada, especially when the creation of Manitoba occurred o The government was looking at where the First Nations were predominately living for farming industry (what is now known as northern Saskatchewan) o First Nations were not helpless, they were very much active before the Government came along o Pressure on First Nations of the plains (declining buffalo herds, influx of settlers) o Motivation for Canadian government and First Nations to negotiate treaties o Treaties ONE through SEVEN were signed during the period from 1871 to 1877 - This is one of the major chief achievements of Confederation o Case study of Treaty One - Negotiated 1871 by Adams Archibald (first governor general of Manitoba) with the Saulteaux and Swampy Cree - Treaty included  Reserves were owned by the Crown, and the Crown allotted the First Nation families  Also paid them annually ($15 a year for a family of 5)  Verbal promises were made (farm equipment, seeds) … these things would be sent to them alongside with training to get them - Govern
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