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HIST 1253 (10)

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HIST 1253
Charles Baxter

Manitoba and the Northwest January 21 st o Not a move against confederation, but want their voices heard Canada Looks Westward o 1868-1869: negotiations to take over Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory - Canadian and British governments, Hudson’s Bay Company  1868, the Macdonald government starts talking with the British government because the Hudson’s Bay Company (the company that has been milking those western provinces) they are the company that has legal authority over the Western provinces  The government starts to come up with a plan to get the Hudson’s Bay Company to hand over their control of Rupert’s Land  This cost Ottawa 300,000 pounds; roughly $1.5M (as of 1914, 1.5M will be roughly 30M today)  The Hudson’s Bay Company still has control over the farming territories surrounding their immediate trading posts • This allows the Hudson’s Bay Company to have a growing property value  Deal completed by March 1869 o Scheduled Canadian takeover of the territories (December 1 1869) - However, in June of 1869, Ottawa had already planned (and taken some steps) what they were going to do to this territory  Canadian government sent surveyors to Red River • To determine boundaries of townships and properties (for future settlement)  Surveyors often failed to accommodate existing Métis land claims (October 11, 1969)  One of the leading Métis protesters was Louis Riel • His cousins’ farm was being surveyed, so he came to protest • The surveyors ended up retracting o Huge Flaw: Nobody consulted with the people that lived there - No consultation, no forewarning that there was going to be a transfer of power - Eg. Aboriginal population; residents of the Red River settlement  Looking at ~100,000 Aboriginals and Métis o Canadian Government was starting to worry about the US coming in and buying the West - The US had just bought Alaska o William McDougall was a prominent figure in settling the West - Was in line for the Lieutenant Governor of the West The Métis o A people of mixed ancestry (usually European fathers and Aboriginal mothers) o Traditionally made their living from fur trade and the buffalo hunt o By late 1860s, many were settled in parishes along the Red and Assiniboine Rivers (near Fort Garry; near the Hudson’s Bay Company headquarters) - Fort Garry was at the junction of the Red River and Assiniboine River o Not a perfectly homogenous group culturally or socially - Many subgroups; based on language and religion Manitoba and the Northwest January 21 st o A very blended lifestyle, not unified o River traffic was important for transportation Louis Riel o Born in 1844 in the Red River settlement - Though not very Aboriginal … 1/8 aboriginal blood - Oldest of 11 children - Devotedly religious family and highly respected o Studied for the priesthood in Montreal, but failed to complete the program - Goal was to train the men to become part of the priesthood to help guide the Métis - When he was there, he got word of his fathers’ death in 1864 - Had a depressing lack of confidence for is suitability in the priesthood - He withdrew from the priesthood o Returned to Red River in 1868; became a leading spokesman for the rights of the local population (especially the Métis) Resistance at Red River; 1869-1870 o The Métis established A National Committee with Riel serving as secretary - Wanting land and language rights - John Bruce was appointed the president… but Riel was more important o Ottawa appointed William McDougall to serve as Lieutenant Governor of the territory - National Committee prevented Mstougall’s arrival in the territory - Sent before the December 1 takeover o November 2 1869 – Riel and a band of followers seized the Hudson’s Bay Company at upper Fort Garry - Once they gained this access, they gained control over the Red River - Wanted to show that they aren’t just in favour of the French, so they invited English and Scottish decedents to fight with them  However, the English were reluctant to take sides o The “Canadian Party” opposed the Métis - John Christian Schultz - Canadian Party: all in support of a Canadian controlled North-West - The happened quickly when Riel captured Red River - On December 7 , Riel surrounds Schultz and manages to overthrow them o December 8 1869
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