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HIST 1253 (10)
Lecture

Feb 6th.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1253
Professor
Charles Baxter
Semester
Winter

Description
Conflict and Compromise February 6 th Language, Religion, and Politics o Tensions in the population - Between English speakers and French speakers - Between Protestants and Catholics o Ultramontane movement and French-Canadian nationalism - A movement that originated in France during the French-revolution  Was a backlash to the “small L” liberals - These were the people that truly believed that society should be organized around school teaching - Wanted the right to sensor and control what people read and did to re-strengthen the Catholic faith o Bitter debates over denominational (religiously run) schools - In New Brunswick during the 1870s  Often glossed over compared to Manitoba - In Manitoba during the 1890s The New Brunswick School Question o Provincial government passes Common Schools Act In 1871 - Created a public school system (only system that would receive government funding) - Funding to come from taxation - Ended customary public support of denominational schools (including Catholic schools) o Before this law, church run schools were receiving funding by matters of convention/practice - It was never written in any law, so it was not guaranteed - Government funding was customary, was never an obligation o This new law shut the door on the customary practice of public support to church run schools o Catholic schools also included French and Irish enclaves … Acadians, Irish, other members of the Catholic fate 1/3 of the population of NB at the time identified as Roman Catholic o Acadians resented this because they were being forced to pay into this through taxes - A lot of Catholics were poor and couldn’t afford this new tax - Only about 1 in 6 Acadians were able to go to school in the first place o Religious issues aside, there were other individuals who also resented this act - Mandatory school attendance was ridiculous to them  Until this Act, it was not mandatory, it was the parents’ choice o Catholics appeal to the government - Federal government refuses to disallow the cat o Other currents of opposition to Common Schools Act o Violent confrontation at Caraquet (1875) - Northern NB, the Acadian peninsula - Two men were shot, and Acadian and an English militia man - Both sides (Acadian and English) were not willing to step down - 9 Acadians were tried for murder  Charges were dismissed - The government was therefore forced to change some things around the Act Conflict and Compromise February 6 th o Amendments restore some public funding to denominational schools - But public system still dominated o Mainly Acadian areas, schools were taught in French o Example of how provinces and the government interrelate The Manitoba Schools Question o Decline of French-speaking Catholic population in Manitoba since 1870 - By earl 1890s, the number of French speakers in Manitoba has declined drastically by waves of immigrants and migrants (most coming from Ontario and much further) - No longer supported by migrants from Quebec, Quebecers are no longer going West, heading elsewhere (such as North-Eastern U
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