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HIST 1253 (10)

Jan 9th & 14th.docx

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Saint Mary's University
HIST 1253
Charles Baxter

Setting the Scene: Canada in 1867 January 9 th o In 1867 a minority of men were able to vote in Canada, let alone Canada o In 1916 the Centre Block in the Canadian Parliament was burnt down - The only thing that was saved was the library Confederationst o July 1 1867 – the BNAAct created the Dominion of Canada - Ontario, Quebec, NB and NS were the first provinces in the dominion in 1867 o BNA colonies and territories outside of Confederation in 1867 - Newfoundland, Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory (all three), BC and PEI o What about Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan?? They were all labelled as Rupert’s Land Who were the people? o Fewer than 3.5 million inhabitants - First census in 1871: 3,458,761 people - Majority (2,812,367) lived in Ontario and Quebec o Approximately 120-1230,000 Aboriginal peoples in BNA by 1867 - Including around 10,000 Metis and around 10,000 Inuit o Nearly one third of Canadians spoke French as their first language o John A. McDonald o Sir Charles Tupper (NS premier at the time) o Lots of sceptics as to whether or not the Confederation was a good thing - People wanted to rip NS out of the confederation o Canada was still in development o Thriving politically and economically o Outside Quebec, settlers from the British Isles (or their descendants) formed majority of the French population - Including many descended from migrants who moved north from the US o Notable minority groups - German-speakers (Lunenburg, Kitchener/Waterloo), people of African descent (NS and Ontario), peoples from South and East Asia (more recent immigration, located on what is now the pacific west coast) o Wanted protestant settlers to exceed the Anglican settlers o In 1867 over half the population was under the age of 21 o Family sizes - Before confederation women in BNA had on average 7-8 children - In 1845 women have 6 children on average - Towards the 1880s and 1890s women were having only 4 children on average o Average life expectancy - Roughly 40 years of age was the average life expectancy - Impact of infant mortality  Relatively high th  1 in 5 children died before the age of 1 in the mid-19 century - Disease  More effective in theories of contagion o Institution of marriage - 95% of Canadians were married Setting the Scene: Canada in 1867 January 9 th - Ages were late teens to early twenties - Family life was very central to the make-up of society  Nuclear family; Mother, Father, 4 children  Sometimes extended relatives would life under the same roof Economic Overview o Primary Resources - Agricultural products, fish, forests o Wheat, fish, and timber were Canada’s main tr
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