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Human Resources Management
Human Resources Management HRM703
Puneet Luthra

March 6, 2013 – Lecture 8 Agenda • Basic Model of Motivation • Early theories – Classical – Hawthorne • Maslows • McClelland • Herzberg • McGregor • Vroom • Contemporary • Equity • Behvaiour Modification Motivation – The inner drive that directs a person’s behaviour toward goals – The processes that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need Motivation Process • Unsatisfied needs (A Need is the difference between desired state and actual state • Tension • Goal Directed behaviour • Dissatified Need •• Tension reductioal So how do you motivate – understand needs and set goals Productivity -> People -> Factors -> Attitude of Managers • Classical Theory of Motivation – Money is the sole motivator for workers – Taylor’s Time and Motion Studies (productivity) • How much time does it take to do task • Don’t pay by the hour but by the piece as money is sole motivator (but give additional bonus for above average production) -Piece-rate system and incentives • The Hawthorne Studies – Elton Mayo et al worked at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company – First time, the focus shifted from work to worker • The first Human Relations Theory – Increase productivity based on attention – motivation based on physical conditions. – Famous case with lighting – when lighting increase there was an increase in productivity, when lighting decrease, there was also an increase in productivity – they got attention and that increased. Give them importance. • McClelland’s Theory of Needs – There are three acquired needs that motivate work performance • Need for achievement (nAch) • Need for power (nPow) • Need for affiliation (nAff) People that have a high need for achievement – given challenging goals (motivation is from within) Give tough targets with help along the way. Get demotivated when targets not met. Need for power – police officers, politicians, management, law enforcement, accountants, bankers, business owners Need for Affiliation – customer service, HR, Social work, PR, Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Example – secretary didn’t feel safe walking home after dark – stopped motivation at second level. Herzberg Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factors (irritants) Motivational factors – Company policies – Achievement – Supervision – Recognition – Working conditions – The work itself – Salary – Responsibility – Security – Advancement Example: Cleaner bathrooms, which didn’t increase productivity. Dirty bathrooms decreased productivity. Mind preoccupied. Presence – has no effect Absence – Demotivates Additional Pay (incentive) Presence – increases motivation Absence – no effect McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Theory Y – Average People dislike – Work is as natural as play work or rest – Need coercion, – People exercise self- punishment to work for direction and self control the goal to objectives that they are – Prefer to be directed and committed avoid responsibility – They accept and seek responsibility Attitude of mangers Theory Z • Based on the Japanese theory proposed by William Ouchi • If you involve people, they would be more motivated to achieve • The employment needs to be lifelong Vroom’s Expectancy Theory • Expectancy Relationships Motivation = E x I x V – Expectancy (effort-performance linkage) • The perceived probability that an individual’s effort will result in a certain level of performance – Instrumentality • The perception that a particular level of performance will result in attaining a desired outcome (reward) – Valence • The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual 1. There are four features inherent in the theory: a. What perceived outcomes does the job offer the employee? b. How attractive do employees consider these outcomes to be? c. What kind of behaviour must the employee exhibit to achieve these outcomes? d. How does the employee view his or her chance of doing what is asked? 2. The key to understanding expectancy theory is understanding an individual’s goal and the linkage between effort and performance, between performance and rewards, and between rewards and individual goal satisfaction. Example – Parent comes home tells child to complete homework in two hours and they will watch a movie. Child is motivated. • Child will think – can I do it? Effort to performance • Child will than think – is it attractive? Children like movies so yes • What if the child completes homework and dad says he is tired? • Two routes when homework is completed, dad can take, dad does not give the reward. • Probability reward will be given. TRUST Set goals that are achievable. Keep your word (trust). Make awards attractive. Equity Theory – equal pay for equal job Equity theory, developed by J. Stacey Adams, says that an employee perceives what he or she got from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what he or she put into it (inputs) and then compares the inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others and finally corrects any inequity Contemporary Theories • Behaviour Modification (consistent rewards and punishment) – B.F. Skinner’s experiments • Relate to the right behaviour
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