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Lecture

ARCH 100 Lecture Notes - Foxtail Millet, Kuahuqiao Site, Yangshao Culture


Department
Archaeology
Course Code
ARCH 100
Professor
Ross Jamieson

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ARCH 100 February 7th, 2011
Agriculture in China
- At least two primary centres of early domestication, Huang Ho River in north, Yangtze River
in southern China
Huang Ho River Basin, China
- Northern China along Huang Ho River, foxtail millet and pigs domesticated first
- P’ei-li-kang Cultures, 6300-5100 BC
- Riverine and loess (windblown soils)
- Hoe and digging stick agriculture
- Village movement when soil exhausted
Yangshao Culture
- 483200 BC in Huang Ho Basin
- Ban-po-ts’un is most famous Yangshao site
- Village of about 100 horses, with defensive wall
- pigs, millet, several nuts, hemp for cloth, possibly silk as well
- Cemeteries, pottery kilns
Yangshao Pottery
- Naturalistic Yangshao pottery is famous as early Chinese art style, expert potters
Yangtze River Basin, Southern China
- Separate reion of agricultural development
- Wet rice paddy agriculture developed from 6000-4500 cal BC
- Number of sites in Yangtze Delta show this transition
Yangtze Rice Domestication
- At 7000 cal BC Shangshan site has wild rice varieties, with pottery
- 5500 cal BC Kuahuqiao site shows transition from wild to domesticated rice
- By 4500 cal BC at Hemudu have intensive paddy farming of fully domesticated rice
Kuahuqiao
- 5700 to 5500 cal BC, extensive analysis of pollen, phytoliths
- small village of houses on wooden pilings in tidal estuary
- Environment heavily altered by human fires, creating rice and cattail environment
- Domestic pig and dog, but mostly reliant on wild plant and animal resources from rich
estuary environment
- Rice is transitional from wild to domesticated species, not fully domesticated at 5500 cal BC
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