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Lecture

ARCH 131 Lecture Notes - Homo Sapiens Idaltu, Peștera Cu Oase, Omo Kibish Formation


Department
Archaeology
Course Code
ARCH 131
Professor
Dennis Sandgathe

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AMHs first appear between 250,000 and 150,000 years ago.
The oldest AMH remains we have are from Africa.
Everyone alive today is a member of the same species: Homo sapiens sapiens.
Tall, rounded cranial vault
More vertical forehead
Little or no browridge
Flat face, prominent chin
Large mastoid process
Widest point of skull is high up on the sides
More rectangular eye orbits
Small nasal aperature
We are even losing space for our 3rd molars (wisdom teeth)
We lack a retromolar gap that Neandertals have
Cranium
taller than Neandertals and Archaic Homo
less robust than Neandertals and Archaic Homo
cylindrical rib cage (not conical)
less spatulated apical tufts (compared to Neandertals)
Postcrania
Cranial fragments recovered from a spring
Intermediate between H. Heidelbergensis and early AMH'?
250,000 years ago?
Florisbad, South Africa
Omo 1
2 imcomplete crania, 4 mandibles, and assorted other pieces
Early AMH
195000 years old (well dated)
Omo 2 cranial capacity >1400 cc
Omo Kibish, SW Ethiopia
Three crania
-
one somewhat complete
1450 cc, high cranial vault
Greatest breadth high on cranium
160,000 years ago
One of the skulls has cutmarks
Homo sapiens idaltu
Herto Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethipoia
1300
-
1450 cc
More vertical forehead
Flatter face
Modern chin
Long, low vault, Neandertal
-
like, but:
160,000 years ago
Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Pointy chin
Remains of up to 10 individuals, but no complete crania
Klasies River Mouth, South Africa
Earliest Archaic Homo Sapiens fossils?
13.1 AMH Morphology and Fossils
November-22-11
2:34 PM
Unit 13 Anatomically Modern Humans Page 1
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Pointy chin
No retromolar gap
Fully modern postcrania
120,000 years ago
Flaked projectile points, small blades, bone points
Associated with advanced technology
Mixed rock powders (red ochire) with animal fats for paints
Seashells with intentional holes for ornamentation
Evidence of symbolic behaviour
Adult female with child at her feet
Bot with antlers placed over his hands
No doubt these were AMH; have chins, vertical foreheads, no real browridge
5 buried individuals, including:
Perforated shells and red ochire: for ornamentation?
90,000
-
100,000 years ago
Somewhat more recent AMH Fossils
Atleast 10 individuals
-
some intentionally buried
Some look more modern
Others look a bit more Neandertal
-
like
Can see some variation among the remains:
All used Mousterian stone
-
tool industry
Some perforated shells: for ornamentation?
80,000
-
120,000 years ago
AMH and Neandertals either co
-
existing in the same region or alternating use of the same
sites. But just as importantly, we have AMH using the exact same stone
-
tool technology as
Neadertals were using in Europe and the Middle East.
Skhul, Mount Carmel
"Bouchra"
8
-
10 year old (boy? Girl?)
Discovered in 2009
Obviously AMH
c. 100,000 years old
Grotte des Contrebandiers (Smuggler's Cave) Morocco
First ancient AMH remains ever found (1868)
5 to 9 individuals in burials
Dated to approximately 27,000 bp
Blade tools and bone points
Cro
-
Magnon, France
19 individuals discovered in 1894
Communal grave covered with stone slabs and mammoth bones (may be in question
now)
c. 30,000 years ago
Mixture of AMH and Neandertal traits
Predmosti , Moravia, Czech Republic
Robust AMH
Associated with cave bear remains
36,000
-
41,000 years ago (oldest AMH in Europe so far)
Pestera cu Oase, Romania
Discovered 1888
Wadjak, Java, Indonesia
More recent Early AMH (70 to 25 kya)
Unit 13 Anatomically Modern Humans Page 2
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