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Lecture

Arch131 notes: All lectures. Chapter 1-14


Department
Archaeology
Course Code
ARCH 131
Professor
Dennis Sandgathe

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Cultural anthropology
study of living cultures
o
Archaeology
study of past cultures, mainly through their material culture remains
o
Physical or biological anthropology
study of human biological evolution and human
remains
o
Linguistics
o
Generally divided into 4 fields:
Anthropology
-
the study of people, the study of modern and ancient cultures, material culture (things
people make and use), evolutionary past, evolution of modern physiology, different cultures,
To understand evolution and our evolutionary processes, stages and causes
o
Human evolution occurs biologically and culturally
o
"Bio
-
cultural Evolution"
Why do biological Anthropology?
Prior to the enlightenment, views of the past were structured by the Church and the people`s
view of the world was defined by the Church.
Even after the Protestant revolution, the average European`s thinking was still restricted by
religion.
The world began Sunday October 23 at 9AM in 4004 BC
o
Irish Archbishop James Ussher (1581
-
1656)
Layers of the earth had different stuff in them
o
Skeletons that were similar to humans, yet different were found
o
Starting in the 17th centuries, scientists began having problems with the biblical framework
Johann Fuhlrott, Hermann Shaaffhausen believed this was proof of evolution occurring to
humans
o
Rudolf Virchow (1821
-
1902) did not accept the idea of evolution
o
The original Neanderthal was found at Felderhofer Cave, Germany, 1856
Pre
-
Scientific Frameworks
``Geologically ancient conditions were the same as or uniform to those of
today``
The Law of Uniformitarianism
James Hutton (1726
-
1797) recognized that the processes that have been forming the Earth
have been slow and occurring for millions of years
o
Charles Lyell (1797
-
1875) published about the ``extreme antiquity of the Earth``
o
Extreme age of the Earth
1.
Boucher de Perthes (1788
-
1868) discovered ancient human made stone tools in St. Acheul,
and published his findings in 1841
o
Hugh Falconer (1808
-
1865) presented findings, and this was a turning point in thinking.
o
Extreme age of human history
2.
``Inheritance of acquired characteristics``
Lamarck (1744
-
1829) suggested that over the life of an organism, it could bring about
changes in its morphology that would pass on to its offspring
o
George Cuvier (1796
-
1832) said that species never changed and always stayed the
same
-
`fixity of species`
o
Charles Darwin (1809
-
1882) publish
On the Origin of Species
in 1859, which explained the
mechanism by which the evolutionary process worked.
o
Mutability of Organisms (Evolution)
3.
Three important changes in thinking
1.1 History of Human Origins Research –Part I
September-06-11
2:53 PM
Unit 1
-
Introduction to Human Origins Page 1

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`Natural Selection`
-
those who survived had characteristics that were better than the
others of the species were the ones who reproduced
mechanism by which the evolutionary process worked.
Neanderthal remains from Spy d`Orneau in Belgium
o
Unit 1
-
Introduction to Human Origins Page 2

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Eugene Dubois (1858
-
1940) found Pithecanthropus in 1891
The Piltdown Hoax
-
a false cranium with a large head and apelike jaw was found
-
1955), Marcellin Boule (1861
-
1942) thought that our large brain and upright
posture were older than other species
Raymond Dart (1893
-
1988) found a child's skull
Australopithecus africanus
and claimed it was the
missing link
Davidson Black (1884
-
1934) found 'Peking Man' in Zhoukoudein, China.
Sinanthropus pekinesis
The Missing Link
Why do we look like we do?
The concept of 'race'
'survival of the fittest' and cultural diversity
Human physical variability and individual behaviour
Variation in the morphology of modern humans
Diseases exposed to
Nutrition and nutritional stress
Specific behaviours?
-
chronic stress from repetitive tasks
Social structure (access to food? Labour?)
Skeletal pathologies can tell us about
Subsistence (types of food they ate)
Geographic origins
Bone Chemistry
Livelihood
Interpersonal violence
Injuries/breaks
Biological anthropology's contribution to archaeology
Other Directions of Early Biological anthropology research
Classification
-
taxonomy (
taxis
= arrangement)
Carl Linnaeus (1707
-
1778) came up with the Binomial Classification System
Early research tool
1.1 History of Human Origins Research –Part II
September-06-11
3:55 PM
Unit 1
-
Introduction to Human Origins Page 1
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