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arch100 week5 catalhoyuk.pdf

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ARCH 100
Ross Jamieson

arch100 week5 catalhoyuk 10/2/2013 ÇATALHÖYÜK: VILLAGE LIFE IN NEOLITHIC ANATOLIA Intro Çatal video The Çatalhöyük Project Your textbook briefly mentions “Ian Hodder’s reopened excavations at Çatalhöyuk” This is, in fact, one of largest archaeological projects in the world In the 2009 field season, 160 researchers from 15 countries around the world participated in the excavations and analysis of finds 1 arch100 week5 catalhoyuk 10/2/2013 Çatalhöyük Göbekli Tepe Çatalhöyük  A 21 metre high mound on the Konya Plain in southern Turkey  (fancy site coverings built by Boeing – big corporate sponsorships) The East Mound 2 arch100 week5 catalhoyuk 10/2/2013  Site discovered by British archaeologist James Mellaart in 1961  Saw it in distance, drove over, realized it was an artificial mound, had to leave excavation until next season  Actually two mounds  East Mound 7400-6000 BC  West Mound 6000-5000 BC The sequence in Turkey  Natufian Period 12,000-9,000 BC Settled villages, intensive use of wild resources  Pre-Pottery Neolithic 9300-7000 BC Increasing reliance on domesticates Settlements getting larger  Pottery Neolithic 7000-6000 BC[East Mound] Introduction of pottery  Chalcolithic 6000 BC- [West Mound] Introduction of copper tools Mellaart’s romanticism  Mellaart presented a number of ideas to popular audiences in 1960s:  Idea of goddess-worshipping centre  Vulture excarnation 3 arch100 week5 catalhoyuk 10/2/2013 Ian Hodder One of most famous living archaeologists Began work at “Çatalhöyük in 1993, reinterpretation of Mellaart’s findings Intention to continue project until 2018 Commitment to long-term research Arch100 Weeks 7/8: Çatalhöyük Subsistence One of key new findings is that the site was surrounded by wetlands when occupied Very different from current dry conditions Key agricultural products were wheat, barley, lentils, sheep and goats 4 arch100 week5 catalhoyuk 10/2/2013 Is it a City?  Idea of urbanism is complex  Hodder says NO, this is a “very, very large village”  3500-8000 people lived here  Here the houses have “internal shrines”(different interpretation than Mellaart) Is it a City?  In towns, we expect functional variation in buildings (houses, shops, temples, offices, barracks, etc)  Teams did deliberate survey looking for public buildings, elite housing, public plazas – found NONE  Interesting, in that other, earlier sites in Turkey have temple complexes, large public sculpture, etc. Göbekli Tepe  Klaus Schmidt, German Archaeological Institute  Excavations since 1994  Layer III, dated 9000-8500 cal BC  Very early (earliest in world?) remains of “public” architecture – open spaces with monolithic pillars  Incredible surprise, as archaeologists thought the mound was a Byzantine cemetery! 5 arch100 week5 catalhoyuk 10/2/2013 6 arch100 week5 catalhoyuk 10/2/2013 Did Foragers build Göbekli Tepe?  Schmidt contends that, given the 9000-8500 cal BC dates, these were built by non- sedentary people!  Dates to right around time of early emergence of einkhorn wheat in nearby regions  A site of annual pilgrimage? Great religious po
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