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Lecture

WEEK 8

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Department
Archaeology
Course
ARCH 100
Professor
Ross Jamieson
Semester
Fall

Description
arch100 week 8 at saqqara 10/16/2013 EGYPT  Predynastic 3500-3000 BC Archaic Period 3000 - 2575 BC  Old Kingdom: 2575-2134 BC First Intermediate Period 2134-2040 BC  Middle Kingdom 2040-1800 BC Second Intermediate (or Hyksos) P1800- 1530 BC  New Kingdom 1530-1070 BC Nile Valley Valley of the Nile River in Egypt was made rich by annual flooding and alluvium deposits Valley is very narrow in places, an “elongated oasis” bordered by desert on both sides Neolithic Egypt  By 5000 BC agriculture well established, introduced from SW Asia  Emmer wheat, flax, barley  Goats, sheep, cattle, pigs  Valley divided into Upper and Lower Egypt 1 arch100 week 8 at saqqara 10/16/2013 Lower Egypt Includes Nile delta area, rich wide floodplain heavily inhabited in Neolithic Upper Egypt Narrower river valley, bounded by rocky escarpments Between the two is Middle Egypt, sparsely populated through most of history Predynastic Egypt 3500-3000 BC  Can see lots of evidence of specialized crafts  Pottery, as well as fine basalt and alabaster bowls  Glassblowing, glass traded widely  Copperworking introduced from Asia 2 arch100 week 8 at saqqara 10/16/2013 El Omari Cemetery 3200 BC  can see Predynastic social differences in burials here towns of 5000 people with a single ruler Burials include trade goods such as ostrich eggshell from Nubia (to south) Burial, El Omari Cemetery Pharaoh Narmer End of Predynastic Period marked by unification of Upper and Lower Egypt into one state Mythology says this happened under the first Pharaoh, Narmer Appears to have been a real event in around 3100 BC, but not clear how many attempts to unify Egypt were made before it became a stable state with one ruler Narmer Palette  The unification is commemorated by the Narmer Palette, slate, 63 cm tall  Found in Hierakonpolis by British archaeologists in 1898  Narmer was ruler of Hierakonpolis, a Kingdom in Upper Egypt  became pharaoh of all of Egypt through military conquest 3 arch100 week 8 at saqqara 10/16/2013 Narmer Palette Archaic Period 3000 - 2575 BC  Even in Archaic Period Egyptian society was highly specialized, Astronomy, geometry, accounting etc.  Writing introduced from Mesopotamia (?), developed into hieroglyphic system Craft specialists at work, tomb of Rekhmara Hieroglyphics Hieroglyphic writing was used from 3000 BC to 100 BC in Egypt A combination of pictographs and phonetic signs, with about 700 signs in total Writing allows large populations to be effectively organized in a state-level society 4 arch100 week 8 at saqqara 10/16/2013 Papyrus, 300 BC Papyrus Hieroglyphics written on plaster walls, carved in stone monuments, and written on papyrus paper, made from reeds Writing involved scribes, an elite prerogative Rosetta Stone The key to deciphering hieroglyphs was the Rosetta Stone, found by the French military during Napoleon’s 1799 invasion 198 BC script with hieroglyphs, demotics, and ancient Greek Jean-François Champollion used the Greek to crack the hieroglyphic code in 1822 invasionoleon, French Old Kingdom: 2575-2134 BC Old Kingdom is first time period that we have good historic records for Memphis, near modern Cairo, was the capital This was the period of great pyramid construction
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