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Lecture

ARCH 100 - March 7, 2011.docx

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Department
Archaeology
Course
ARCH 100
Professor
Ross Jamieson
Semester
Winter

Description
ARCH 100 – March 7, 2011 Week 8 – Mesopotamia Uruk Social Structure - King, Temple, City Council - Temple as focal point - King (Ensii) – temple maintenance, military leadership - City Council – Elected the King, other roles unclear - Each urban centre had a patron god, part of a pantheon of gods & goddesses Uruk Pottery - Potter’s wheel and moulds, mass production of utilitarian ceramics Cylinder Seals - First used in Uruk Period, cylinder seals are tubular, could be carried with you on strong - Marks of ownership or other information, used to impress into sealing material on trade cargo The Sumerians - Sumerian civilization merged in southern Mesopotamia around 3000 BC - The Early Dynastic Period ran from 3000-2350 BC - At its height, its influence ranged from India and the Mediterranean Sumerian City States - Made up of 10-13 autonomous city-states, including Ur Sumerian City-States - Each city had a governor, with council of citizens - Sometimes a strong leader would unite several cities but Sumer never became one big state Warfare - Bronze introduced in this time period, alloy of copper and tin, excellent for agricultural tools and weapons - Combination of bronze weapons and wheeled chariots made for military advantages - Chariots, 2600 BC, City of Ur Trade - Sumer linked to other large polities through trade, demand for luxury goods superceded political boundaries - Persian Gulf, Indus Valley (Harappans), Levant, Anatolia, Nile - Trade was conducted under the watchful eye of the temples - There was no “money”, but values could be expressed in quantities of items like gold or silver - Maritime trade by ships - 2500 BC: gold and Lapis Lazuli from UR, Lion-headed eagle - Royal Cemetery at Ur - Ur was one of the most important Sumerian cities - Excavations by Leonard Woolley in 1920-30s revealed cemetery dates to 2800 BC - Includes about 2500 burials, only 20 of which are of royalty - Astounding wealth of materials with the royal burials - Precious stones like lapis lazuli, carnelian, gold, shells - Lyres, harps, drums, cymbals - Boat models - Human sacrifice, up to 75 people with one leader - Voluntarily entered tombs, took poison - Shows great social inequality Cuneiform - Sumerian cuneiform script, oldest known writing system in world - Began with Sumerians, used in Southwest Asia for 2000 years, long after Sumerians were gone - First used for administration and trade documents - Over 80% of clay tablets from Sumerian period at Uruk were trade documents - Only very small proportion of population were literate - Being a scribe meant being a highly-trained specialist The Conquest - Sumer was conquered in 2334 BC by the Akkadians - A state from further north ruled by Sargon - At this point we leave SW Asia, although many interesting later empires such as Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians Week 9 – Catalhoyuk: Village Life in Neolithic Anatolic The Çatalhöyük Project - Your textbook briefly mentions “Ian Hodder’s reopened excavations at Çatalhöyük” - This is one of the largest archaeological projects in the world - In the 2009 field season, 160 researchers from 15 countries around the world participated in the excavations and analysis of finds Çatalhöyük - a 21 metre high mound on the Kanya Plain in southern Turkey - (fancy site coverings built by Boeing – big corporate sponsorships) - Site discovered by British archaeologists James Mellaart in 1961 - Saw it in distance, drove over, realized it was an artificial mound, had to leave excavation until next season - Actually two mounds: East Mound (7400-6000 BC) and West Mound (6000-5000 BC) The Sequence in Turkey - Natufian Period 12,99-9,000 BC o Settled villages, intensive use of wild resources - Pre-Pottery Neolithic 9300-7000 BC o Increasing reliance on domesticates o Settlements getting larger - Pottery Neolthic 7000-6000 BC (East Mound) o Introduction at pottery - Chalcolithic 6000 BC+ (West Mound) o Introduction of copper tools Mellaart’s romanticism - Mellaart presented a number of ideas to popular audiences in 1960s o
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