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ARCH 100 - March 21, 2011.docx

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Simon Fraser University
ARCH 100
Ross Jamieson

ARCH 100 – March 21, 2011 Chronology for Mississippi Basin - Palaeoindianm 13000-10000 BC - Archaic, 10000-1000 BC - Woodland 1000 BC to AD 1600 o Hopewell 200 BC- AD 600 o Mississippian AD 700-AD 1600 - European contact/historic AD 1600-present Archaic in SE United States - Similar to Mesolithic in Old World, with increasing environmental regionalism - Pottery by 2500 BC - 2000 BC early river-bottom plant domesticates: sunflower, chenopodium (goosefoot), sumpweed, minor part of diet - Long distance trade networks Poverty Point Earthwork, Louisiana - 1600 BC - One of the earliest monumental earthworks in North America (nearby Watson Brake Site has small mounds and ridges dating 3000 BC) - Strategic location at river confluences - Earth ridges in semicircle - Artificial mound, can see equinox alignment from it - Trade goods from up to 1000 km away Poverty Point - Labour of 1350 people for 210 days - Suggests the ceremonial centre of chiefdom, like megalithic sites in Europe - Abandoned after end of Archaic, 650 BC Woodland Tradition - 1000 BC to 1000 AD - Introduction of the bow and arrow, great spread of agriculture and pottery throughout eastern North America - Development of large sedentary villages throughout eastern North America Hopewell, 200 BC – AD 600 - Middle Woodland period, Illinois River Valley - Many groups, linked by long distance trade and common ritual practices - An “interaction sphere” rather than a state Hopewell Trade and Settlements - Fine pottery, Great Lakes copper, obsidian from Yellowstone, mica from Appalachians - Trade network encompassed much of North America Hopewell Earthworks - Burial mounds were large conical earthworks - Sacred enclosures laid out in various shapes, with astronomical alignments - 55Increased populations due to agriculture Mississippian, AD 700-1600 - Many groups, shared elaborate mortuary customs - Eastern US major river valleys - Maize and beans became universal, led to even higher population densities Mississippian Mounds - Temple platforms - Complex settlement organizations - “paramountcy” or complex chiefdoms Cahokia, AD 850-1500 - Important Mississippian site, near modern St. Louis - Over 120 mounds Monk’s Mound (at Cahokia) - Largest prehistoric structure in North America north of the Rio Grande - AD 900-1200 - 32 m high, 19 million person hours Monk’s Mound - Temple on top - Fortified complex of mounds, plaza, residences Southern Cult - Mississippian culture associated with art/ritual complex called the “Southern Cult” - Defined by art styles such as the “Weeping Eye Motif” - Thought to represent a shared religion among elites throughout the region, paving way for trade and power connections Mound 72, Cahokia - 280 burals, dated at around AD1000 - One was male elite burial with sacrificial retainers A woodhenge at Cahokia - Recent remote sensing and excavation reveale
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