Arch 131 Lecture 4 01/23/2014
Arch 131 Week 1
Archeology study of past cultures through material culture remains
Cultural Anthropology study of living cultures
Physical/Biological Anthropology study of human biological evolution and human remains
Linguisiticsstudy of languages
ALLS GOAL IS TO UNDERSTAND PEOPLE
Archaeologist will want to know why humans wanted to make tools and how they used them
Physical/biological anthropology will ask why they started to make the tool.
changes in the brain or wrists?
50 years ago it was assumed that we were just special animals
Unit 1; Intro to Human Origins
History of Human Origins Research Arab scholars helped a lot to discover many things
AlAzhar University,Cario est. 975 AD
University of AlKaraouine, Fes, Morocco est. 859 AD
Irish Archbishop James Ussher (15811656) said world began in 4004 BC
Biblical scholar. Created a genealogy tree dated back to Adam and eve.
Said the world was created on October 23 at 9 a.m
Charles Darwin came up with the idea of evolution, and came up with a mechanism to explain how it
If you look at any animal or plant species they produce far more offspring that can survive
Alfred Russel Wallace (Came up with natural selection as well, let Darwin take most of the credit)
Thomas Henry Huxley (probably the most smartest guy in his era) loved to debate ideas, when he became
familiar with darwin’s theory of natural selection, he became a big supporter
Neandertal remains found 1888 I think. Ancestors, but not that different from us, missing link between great
apes and neandertal . Evoltion is not linear, it is a lot more complicated, a lot of branches and lose ends. Eugine Dubois (dutch physician), believed arangatangs was a good choice for ancestors for us. Looked for
remains in java. Failure
Arthur Keith, & Marcellin Boule: think humans are really special, and we are nothing like neandtrals,
convinced neandertals are not our ancestors, and said to keep looking for fossils for our real ancestors
Neandertals are not our direct ancestors, a lot more muscular, a lot more robust
1900’s: The view of evolution is getting filled in, fossils are being found
Leakey family: hunting for fossils in east Africa 1930present
Darwin: not survival of the fittest, correct term is survival of the fit.
Early research tool.
3.1 Inheritance and Mendel’s Principals
The mechanism of Inheritance of traits Darwin knew something was up
Blending of traits.
Breeding or Arificial Selection
putting two things together to get a new product
ex. Corn wild corn + ancient domestic corn=modern corn
Heckrind A recreated version of the extinct species Aurochs
1850s Research on Plant Hybridization
What Mendel Saw
Generation 3 will have 75% of one trait and 25% of another
Each parent also giving up a particle. One particle is dominant over another
Each parent contains both a dominant and recessive “particle” for the trait in question.
Has 50/50 chance on which particle will be passed on.
Just 4 possible combiantions:
Sw+Sw= SS or Sw or wS or ww
Today we refer to the particles of each trait as alleles. AN allele is an alternate form of a specific gene.
Homozygous dominat having 2 of the dominant form of an allele
Heterozygous: having 1 dominant and 1 recessive form Homozygous recessive: having 2 of the recessive form of an allele
Monohybrid Corsses vs. Dihybrid Crosses
Mono crossing two plants that doffer in only one characteristic
Di crosses where the parent plants differed in 2 different characteristics
1. The Principle of Segregation
Offspring inherit one discrete unit for a trait from each parent
These units maintain their unique integrity from generation to genreration
2. The principle of Dominance and Recessivness
a. Some expressions of a specific trair were dominant over others
3. The Principle of Independent Assortment
a. Different traits were not inherited together as packages. They passed form generation to
generation as independent units.
Mendel lucked out….
He selected traits that are influenced by single genes in the chromosomes of plea plants. Theses
are called monogenic traits.
Some of his relsuts were contrary to his principle of independence assortment
The traits Mendel examined were types that are expressed as discrete categories … CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
Prokaryotic cells 3.8 billion years agoDNA floats around
Eukaryotic Cellsalage appeared 1.5 billion years goNucleus protects DNA
Plasma membrane controls what goes out and what comes in
Complex molecules composed of different amino acid chains and have a wide variety of functions:
serve as structural molecules in the formation of new cells and bodies
acts as transport moelecules for moving materials about the cell and between clells
serve as antibodies for fighting foreign bodies such as bacteria that cause infections
serves as enzymes that facilitate chemical reaction in the body
serve as hormonesimportant regulator of body functions
1 phosphate 1 sugar
1 nitrogeneius base
= a neucliotide
Gene: a gene is a set swquence of nitrogenous bases( out of the whole DNA sequence) that code for a
DNA replication –chromosomes are differnent section of entire DNA sequence
Chromosomes form right before cell division
Humans usually have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)diploid number
23 come from father and 23 form mother
each matching pair is called homologous chromosomes the first 22 pairs are called autosomes
last set is the sex chromosomes to determine gender
Each chromosome carries different genes:
A gene refers to a specific location or locus along a chromosome
Each gene includes two alleles, one from each parent’s genetic contribution
Alleles are different versions of a specific gene
Different alleles may code for conflicting traits(short