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week 10 Lecture Notes Unit 10.1(con't) and Unit 11.1(full)

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ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

10.1 Palaeolithic Material Culture November-01-11 4:33 PM These notes are a continuation of the section 10.1 notes posted the week before. Section 11.1 begins on page 3. ▪ Mode 3: Prepared core technology (400k-40kyears ago) □ Developedout of handaxe technology? □ Earliest forms in Africa c.400k □ Appears in Europe c.400k □ Levalloistechnology (most famous form of prepared core) □ Advantages: • Provide a certain level of standardization in flake products • Can provide products with specific shapes: long narrow blades, triangular points • Produce flakes with increased edge length to raw material volume (economicalof raw material) • Are versatile—onecan modify the technique to suit end-product needs or raw material shapes □ Involves delayed returns and so represents forethought and planning (but so did Acheulian handaxes much earlier) ▪ Mode 4: Blade technology (40k-12kyears ago) □ Long, narrow flakes are considered as "blades" □ Advantages: • more cutting edge per raw material volume • easier to modify into specific shapes • much more like a modern knife □ Associated with the late stone age in Africa, really common40,000 years ago ▪ Mode 5: Microlithtechnology (12k-) □ Very small blades -"microliths"are placed onto shaft with resin, this is called a "compositetool" □ Advantages • Increased cutting edge to raw material volume • If any pieces break off the compositetool, it can be replaced with another one □ Mesolithic period, starting about 10-12kya • Non-Lithic material culture during the Palaeolithic ○ Among modern hunter-gatherers ▪ Commonraw materials include: ○ wood ○ bark ○ grass ○ hide ○ hair ○ glues/resins ○ Bone, ivory,antler ▪ Containers and cordage are two important components. ▪ Clothing in colder regions? (hides mostly) ○ Prior to 40,000 years ago ▪ Rare use of bone for making tools ▪ Little evidence for preparation of animal hides ▪ No evidence of basketry ▪ No evidence of basketry ▪ No evidence of cordage ▪ Some evidence of glues/resins by 200kya,ex: tree sap and bitumin ▪ Wood? ○ Wooden tools from Schoningen, Germany ▪ 300,000years old ▪ 4 wooden spears, each about 2m long ▪ Remains of 20 horses with butchery marks ▪ 3 wooden tools with grooves cut in their ends (handles?) and a digging stick ○ Other very old wooden artificats ▪ Lehringen, Germany -spear found with elephant remains 130kya ▪ Clacton channel, England -spear made of yew wood 200-250 kya ○ Bone tools? ▪ Very rare prior to 40,000 years ago ▪ Pre-40,000-year-oldbone tools, very simple, crude shaping of the end of a bone; found at BlombosCave South Africa 75kya ○ Site modification and structures? ▪ Terra Amata, Nice, France - 400000-year-oldcampsite with evidence of structures (postholes) ▪ La Grotte du Lazeret, France - 150,000-year-oldcave site with evidence of a structure ○ Clothing ▪ No evidence of when clothing appeared 11.1 Archaic Homo in Europe November-08-11 3:15 PM • Good evidence that someform of Homo erectus was in Europe by 1,000,000 years ago • Orce, Spain ○ Stone tools dated to 1mya ○ Some cranial fragments as well (might actually be horse cranium) • Ceprano, Italy ○ A robust, "erectus-like"cranium ○ Cranial capacity of 1185cc ○ >700kya(likely 800-900kya) ○ Sandwiched between layers with Mode II (hand axes) above and Mode I (pebble tools) below • Atapuerca Hills, Spain ○ A rail line was cut through the hill in the late 1800,and they uncovered a large number of sites ○ Gran Dolina ▪ Layer 6: 100 hominin bone fragments representing at least 6 different individuals -from just a 2x2m area ▪ Radiometricdates and paleomagnetism suggest these hominin remains are 800,000 to 875,000years old ▪ But, like Ceprano, Gran Dolina has stone tools from an even older layer that must be approximately 1 mya ▪ New species: Homo antecessor ○ Sima del Elfante
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