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Lecture

Lecture notes Unit 12.1

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Department
Archaeology
Course
ARCH 131
Professor
Dennis Sandgathe
Semester
Fall

Description
Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis November-15-11 2:36 PM • Neandertal : "New man valley" • Earliest Discoveries ○ 1839 Engis Cave, Belgium (unnoticed at first because it was hard to distinguish the child's skull from a human's) ○ 1848 Forbes Quarry, Gibraltar ○ 1856 Felderhofer Cave, Neandertal, Germany ○ 1886 Spy d’Orneau, Belgium (2 skeletons) ○ Finding a number of such similar fossils proved that they were membersof an ancient population, not diseased moderns. • 1890s-1930sVery productive years for discoveriesof Neandertal remains ○ Krapina, Croatia (1899) ▪ Remains of up to 80 individuals ▪ Dated to 130,000 years ago ▪ Remains all fragmented (no completecrania) ▪ Lots of cut-marks and burning -cannibalism? ○ La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France ▪ 1908 ▪ Completeskeleton ▪ Intentional burial? ▪ Old man with arthritis ▪ 50,000-60,000years ago ○ Le Moustier,France ▪ 1908 and 1914 ▪ An adolescent and a neonate (newborn) ▪ Intentional burials? ▪ 40,000 years ago ○ La Ferrassie, France ▪ 1907-1922 ▪ Initially 6 individuals □ Adult male, adult female, 3 children, and 1 infant/fetus □ 4th child found in 1973 ▪ Intentional burials? ▪ 60,000 years ago ○ Mount Carmel, Israel ▪ 3 important cave sites ▪ Tabun and Kebara □ 11 partial skeletons □ Most intentional burials □ Two different neandertal types: "robust" form: Kebara, 45-65000bp "finer-featured" form: Tabun 120-150000 bp ▪ Skhul ○ Shanidar Cave, Iraq ▪ 1957-1961 ▪ 9 individuals ▪ Intentional burials? ▪ 45,000-60,000years ago ▪ One of the skeletons (#4) may have been buried with wild flowers ▪ One of the skeletons (#4) may have been buried with wild flowers ○ Pech de l'Azé I, France ▪ Infant neandertal remains ~1 year old ▪ Not well dated ○ Roc de Marsal, France ▪ 2-4 year old child ▪ Intentional burial not likely ▪ 80,000 years ago ○ Teshik-Tash, Uzbekistan ▪ 1938-1939 ▪ 9-10 year old boy ▪ Intentional burial? ▪ 70-100,000years ago • Currently, we have remains of approximately 500 Neandertal individuals. This includes fragments of skeletons as well. • Duration of Neandertals? ○ Earliest fossils >500,000years ago at Sima de los Huesos, Spain. ▪ Not quite Neandertal, but close, an immediateancestor ○ 230,000years ago in Pontnewydd,Wales ▪ is the oldest Neandertal fossil found ▪ Taurodontism ○ Latest (most recent) fossils: ▪ 29,000 years ago in Mezmaiskaya,Russi □ A 1-2 week old infant ▪ 28,000 years ago in Vindija Cave, Croatia □ Mandible • Neandertal Adaptation ○ For much of their existence, Neandertals were living in cold, dry, harsh conditions ○ Neandertal use of fire? ▪ Evidence from Roc de Marsal, France ▪ Lots of charcoal and ash in the lower layers, howeverthere is not any in the later layers when it was colder climate p
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