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Simon Fraser University
ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

Arch 131 Human Origins AnthropologyCultural Anthropology study of living cultures can study current behaviourArcheology study of past cultures mainly through their material culture remainsPhysical or biological anthropology study or human biological evolution and human remainsLinguistics study of languagesWhy do biological anthropologyTry and figure out evolution studying tools influences biological evolutionbiocultural evolutionUnit 1 Intro to human originsHistory of human origins researchEarliest scientistsAlAzhar University Cairo est 975 ADUniversity of AlKaraouine Fes Morocco est 859 AD oldest place for learning in china modern science develop in EuropePrescientific FrameworksMainly dictated by the Catholic Church biblical is absolute truthIrish Archbishop James Usher 15811656 reconstructed the genealogy the world began in 4004 BC Was taken very seriouslythIn the 18 century people began having problems with the biblical version of things called naturalists in some areas some sediment was km thick and full of fossils and believed the world started earlier and full of change Felderhofer Cave Germany 1856 the original neandertal Johann Fuhlrott noticed the remains were slightly different than normal human remains so called Hermann Shaaffausen that called attention to human evolution Rudolf Virchow 18211902 important scientist looked at the remains and announced it was a normal human suffering from an ailment and squashed the idea of changeThree important changes in thinking1Extreme age of the earth James Hutton 17261797 its not floods that change the earth but everyday things like wind Law of uniformitarianism geologically ancient conditions were the same as today Charles Lyell 17971875 1835 extreme antiquity of the earth 2Extreme age of human history Boucher de Perthes 17881868 St Acheul 1841 hunted for ancient tools and animal fossilsHugh Falconer 1808 1865 helps convince others that the animal bones predate the flood3Mutability of organisms evolution Lamark 17441829 first person to recognise that animals go through change and tried to come up with a mechanism to which they do change inheritance or acquired characteristics eg giraffes neck George Cuvier 1796 1832 fixity of SpeciesCharles Darwin 18091882 1959 published origin of species which explained the mechanism by which the evolutionary process worked Natural selection Also Alfred Russel Wallace came up with a similar idea 18231913Thomas Henry Huxley 18251895 Darwins Bulldog In the late 1800s more Neandertal remains are discovered and it becomes clear that they are normal remains of organisms from long agoEarly Studies of the Distant PastThe missing link between humans and apesEugene Dubois18581940 found remains of human like ancestor and believed he found the link Pithecanthropus 1891Arthur Keith 18661955Marcellin Boule 1861 1942 what made humans different was our brain and our stance are uniquely human Piltdown hoax 19081911 mandible was ape like Human cranium ape jawThe broken hill 1921 First non human skull found in AfricaRaymond dart Davidson Black peking Man Sinanthropus pekinsis By the 1920s and 1930s many fossils were found in AfricaLouis Leakey starts looking in east africa in the 30s for fossils and the contributions were very importantOther directions of early biological anthropology researchVariation in the morphology of modern humanswhy do we look like we do the concept of race survival of the fittest and cultural diversity Human physical variability and individual behaviourBiologicalAntropologys contribution to archaeologySkeletal Pathologiesdiseasesnutrition and nutritional stressspecific behaviour Cronic stress from repetitive taskssocial structure access to food LabourBone Chemistrysubsistencegeographic originsinjuries breakslivelihood
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