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lecture notes unit 13.1 and 13.2

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Simon Fraser University
ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

13.1 AMH Morphology and Fossils November-22-11 2:34 PM • AMHs first appear between 250,000and 150,000 years ago. • The oldest AMH remains we have are from Africa. • Everyonealive today is a member of the same species: Homo sapiens sapiens. • Cranium ○ Tall, rounded cranial vault ○ More vertical forehead ○ Little or no browridge ○ Flat face, prominent chin ○ Large mastoid process ○ Rounded occipital ○ Widest point of skull is high up on the sides ○ More rectangular eye orbits ○ Small nasal aperature ○ We lack a retromolargap that Neandertals have ▪ We are even losing space for our 3rd molars (wisdom teeth) • Postcrania ○ taller than Neandertals and Archaic Homo ○ less robust than Neandertals and Archaic Homo ○ cylindrical rib cage (not conical) ○ less spatulated apical tufts (comparedto Neandertals) • Earliest Archaic Homo Sapiens fossils? ○ Florisbad, South Africa ▪ Cranial fragments recoveredfrom a spring ▪ Intermediatebetween H. Heidelbergensis and early AMH'? ▪ 250,000years ago? ○ Omo Kibish, SW Ethiopia ▪ Omo 1 ▪ 2 imcompletecrania, 4 mandibles, and assorted other pieces ▪ Early AMH ▪ 195000years old (well dated) ▪ Omo 2 cranial capacity >1400 cc ○ Herto Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethipoia ▪ Three crania -one somewhatcomplete ▪ 1450 cc, high cranial vault ▪ Greatest breadth high on cranium ▪ 160,000years ago ▪ One of the skulls has cutmarks ▪ Homo sapiens idaltu ○ Jebel Irhoud, Morocco ▪ 1300-1450cc ▪ Long, low vault, Neandertal-like, but: □ More vertical forehead □ Flatter face □ Modern chin ▪ 160,000years ago ○ Klasies River Mouth, South Africa ▪ Remains of up to 10 individuals, but no completecrania □ Pointy chin □ Pointy chin □ No retromolargap □ Fully modern postcrania □ 120,000years ago ▪ Associated with advanced technology □ Flaked projectile points, small blades, bone points ▪ Evidence of symbolic behaviour □ Mixed rock powders (red ochire) with animal fats for paints □ Seashells with intentional holes for ornamentation • Somewhatmore recent AMH Fossils ○ 5 buried individuals, including: ▪ Adult female with child at her feet ▪ Bot with antlers placed over his hands ▪ No doubt these were AMH; have chins, vertical foreheads, no real browridge ○ Perforatedshells and red ochire: for ornamentation? ○ 90,000-100,000 years ago • Skhul, Mount Carmel ○ Atleast 10 individuals -some intentionally buried ○ Can see some variation among the remains: ▪ Some look more modern ▪ Others look a bit more Neandertal-like ○ All used Mousterian stone-toolindustry ○ Some perforated shells: for ornamentation? ○ 80,000-120,000 years ago ○ AMH and Neandertals either co-existing in the same region or alternating use of the same sites. But just as importantly, we have AMH using the exact same stone-tooltechnology as Neadertals were using in Europe and the Middle East. • Grotte des Contrebandiers (Smuggler's Cave) Morocco ○ "Bouchra" ○ 8-10 year old (boy? Girl?) ○ Discoveredin 2009 ○ Obviously AMH ○ c. 100,000years old • More recent Early AMH (70 to 25 kya) ○ Cro-Magnon, France ▪ First ancient AMH remains ever found (1868) ▪ 5 to 9 individuals in burials ▪ Dated to approximately 27,000 bp ▪ Blade tools and bone points ○ Predmosti, Moravia,Czech Republic ▪ 19 individuals discovered in 1894 ▪ Communal grave covered with stone slabs and mammothbones (may be in question now) ▪ c. 30,000years ago ▪ Mixture of AMH and Neandertal traits ○ Pestera cu Oase, Romania ▪ Robust AMH ▪ Associated with cave bear remains ▪ 36,000-41,000years ago (oldest AMH in Europe so far) ○ Wadjak, Java, Indonesia ▪ Discovered1888 ▪ Discovered1888 ▪ Clearly AMH, but robust ▪ No date available for it ○ Liujiang, China ▪ Well preserved cranium ▪ Date of 61,000-73,000years ago? ▪ Earliest example of AMH from East Asia ▪ Sinodonty (shovel-shaped incisors) 13.2 The Emergence of AMH November-22-11 3:49 PM • Until 30,000 years ago, there was always a variety of hominin species living at the same time - although not necessarily in the same place. • The big question: How did we, Homo sapiens sapiens, come to be the only hominin species in the workd today? • Two competing hypotheses: ○ CompleteReplacement or "Out of Africa" Hypothesis 1. AMH evolved in Africa between 250,000and 150,000 bp1 2. After 100,000bp, they s
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