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BISC 100 (22)

Molecular Biology of the Gene

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
BISC 100
Russell A.Nicholson

molecular biology of the genecells contain thousands of different proteinseach proteinunique aa sequenceunique 3d structurespecic functioncells also contain membrane systems and organelles etccell must have information to organize itself in this waywhen a cell divides this information must be passed to the next generationrequirements of an information carrying moleculemust be largemade up of basic symbols that could form a codeother critical requirements a decoding systemability to make a precise copy of the code and pass it on to offspringmolecules holding the code must have the capacity to replicate our focus the DNA moleculehow we know that DNA molecules carry the genetic codehow DNA directs and controls protein synthesishow DNA replicateshow DNA function can change mutation viruses etc Frederick Griffith 1928movement of a substance from onestrain ofbacteriato another transforms a harmlessstrain into a pathogenic strain capable of producing diseaser bacteriathat do not have thepolysaccharides coat are not able tokill mices bacteriahave a polysaccharides coat and are pathogenic When they are injected into mice the mice dieheattreatedsbacteria with the polysaccharides coat are dead they do not kill mice when injecteda mixture of liver bacteria nonpathogenic no polysaccharides coat and heatkilleds bacteria causes mice to die blood from dead mouse from excerpt 4 yields the coated virulent s bacteriaOswald Avery1944when protein lipids or carbohydrate were removed from heatkilled sbacteria the ability to transform r bacteriaremainedSo he thought that protein lipids or carbohydrates have nothing to do with DNAdetailed biochemical and physical tests showed that the transforming principle passed from dead to living bacteria was likely DNA so based on the technique they had they said its most likely DNA because it looks likeacts likecharacteristicsbut still they werent too sureconclusion DNA carries the code for formation of the polysaccharides coatrough r bacteria nonpathogenicDNA extract from heat killed sbacteriasmooth sbacteria pathogenicthis wasnt very conclusive and they werent sure if maybe protein might have actually been the causebacteriophage infecting a bacterial cellBacteriophage or also known as phage has a polyhedral head made out of protein and inside there is coiled up DNARest of the phage is also made out of proteinsThe tail is made to attach and dock itself onto the host cellOnce it attaches it injects a viral DNA into the bacterial cellNote only inside the head is DNA
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