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Biological Sciences
BISC 100
Russell A.Nicholson

Photosynthesisphotosynthesisophotolightosynthesismakinglight is used to make something sugars moleculesoWe look at how plants use light to synthesize glucosesugaronot just plants have photosynthesis ex Algae and bacteriaoall of these plantsother stuff have in common is they have green parts photosynthetic partsequation summarizing photosynthesiso6CO26H2OGlucose and 6O2oendergonic multistep reactionendergonicenergy input needed sunlight So Glucose molecule higher energyoreverse of cellular respirationPeople observing photosynthesisoJan van Helmont 15771644willow tree grown in an enclosed pot supplied water onlytree gained 75 kg but almost no weight change in soilerroneously concluded the willows weight gain came from waterojoseph priestly 17331804plants restore air in which candles burnplants could keep a mouse aliveoJan Ingenhousz 17301799confirmed Priestlys experimentsrenewal of air only occurs if light is presentonly green parts of plant are responsiblePhotosynthesis partsoPhotosynthesis happens in chloroplast know chloroplast partsoStromata on leaves CO2 reactant goes in from here and O2 product goes outoThere is a vein in mesophyll mesophyll has many chloroplasts in itExperiments to test weather Oxygen liberated was from Carbon dioxideoonly available 18O2oWhere does the oxygen liberated in photosynthesis come fromonly when a plant was given h2 18o did it evolve 18o2oThey used radioactive CO2 but this didnt work welloBut when used radioactive water there was radioactive O2 was liberated as oxygenPhotosynthesis productsoall carbon in co2 is routed into sugars carbon backboneoall oxygen split from water becomes gaseous oxygenosome oxygen in co2 and some hydrogen in water is also used to make sugarsosome hydrogen in h2o couples with oxygen in co2 to make water moleculesphotosynthesis is a redox processoPhotosynthesis liberates electrons and make water to glucosereverse redox reactionocompare with respirationoIn respiration electrons are forming glucose to waterredox reaction and forms ATPoverview know the cycle very welloChloroplast has a double membraneolight reactions constantly need NADP and ADPP as well as lightin dark places photosynthesis cannot occurin light reactionsforms energy to convert ATP and NADPHATP and NADPH passed to Calvin cycleoCalvin cyclelight independentneed no light but highly dependent of product of light reactionsdifferent to citric cycle but similarkeeps making Carbon and shooting out glucose this happens in the stromathe electromagnetic spectrumoPhotosynthesis dependent on light so need to look at spectrum wavesoElectromagnetic radiation travel by waveformoOnly a small fraction of electromagnetic spectrum is perceived by the eyes by different organismsvisible rangeWithin visible range we perceive light as different colorsSo why does a leaf look green
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