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Lecture 2

Week 2

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Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Derek Bingham

Week 2 1 FATS PHOSPHOLIPIDS  Provide protection, insulation, and a source of energy Lecithin  Major lipid component of cell membranes  Constituent of plasma Cephalin and Sphingomyelin  Found in [high] in nerves and brain tissue STEROIDS Cholesterol Vitamin D  Constituent of all animal cells, blood, and  Produced in skin when exposed to UV nervous tissue radiation  Precursor of bile salts, vitamin D, and  Necessary for bone growth, development, steroid hormones and repair Bile Salts Estrogens  Substances that emulsify or suspend fats  Sex hormone produced in large quantities before their digestion and absorption by females  Needed for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (i.e., D) Androgens  Sex hormone produced in large quantities by males PROSTAGLANDINS Membrane-associated lipids, stimulates uterine contractions, regulates BP, transmits nerve impulses OTHER LIPID STRUCTURES Carotenes  Pigment in carrots  Vitamin A is formed from carotenes;  Retinene (formed from vitamin A) is a photoreceptor in the retina of the eye Vitamin E  Promotes wound healing, prevent scarring, contributes to normal structure and function of the nervous system  Antioxidant  Deficiency  sterility, anaemia CARBOHYDRATE MOLECULES (STARCHES & SUGARS)  General formula C(H2O)  Glucose (C 6 12)6  Can convert to proteins or fats or function as food reserves  Provides the most readily available source of energy Week 2 2 THREE MAJOR GROUPS OF CARBOHYDRATES MONOSACCHARIDES  Simple sugars with 3-7 carbon atoms  5-carbon sugars (pentoses) o Ribose and deoxyribose – components of RNA and DNA  6-carbon sugars (hexoses) o Glucose – main energy-supplying molecule, carried in our blood o Fructose – sugar found in fruit that is easily converted to glucose o Galactose – sugar found in dairy that is easily converted to glucose DISACCHARIDES  Two monosaccharides  Sucrose consists of glucose and fructose  Lactose consists of glucose and galactose  Supplies energy POLYSACCHARIDES  Many monosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesis  Large molecules  Starch is found in plants and provides long-term energy storage in the liver and skeletal muscles o Cellulose is an exception—it makes up the structure of plants MAJOR ELEMENTS OF LIPID MOLECULES  Composed of many carbon, many hydrogen, but few oxygen  Triglycerides (a molecule of fat) contain two components: one glycerol molecule joined to three fatty acid molecules MAJOR GROUPS OF LIPIDS TRIGLYCERIDES (FATS)  Most highly concentrated source of energy  More than 2x the energy per weight as carbohydrates and proteins  But they are ~10-12% less efficient as body fuels  great amount of the fat calorie is wasted and not available for the body to use *STEROIDS  Some sex hormones  Vitamin D is essential for bone growth  Cholesterol is the precursor of bile salts, vitamin D, and steroid hormones PHOSPHOLIPIDS  Major structural components of all cell membranes Week 2 3 SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED VS. POLYUNSATURATED FATS SATURATED FATS  All available bonds of its hydro-carbon chain are filled (“saturated”) with hydrogen atoms  No double bonds  Animal products, solid at room temperature  Liver uses some brea
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