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Basics about Bones

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Derek Bingham

Bones 1  Connective tissues = cellular component + larger intercellular matrix  Mature bone cells (osteoblasts) = osteocytes  Cell that forms new bone during growth and repair = osteoblast  Contains abundance of mineral salts, mainly calcium phosphate Bone:  Basic functional unit of compact bone = osteon or Haversian system o Arranged in repeating units  At the center of the osteons = Haversian (central) canals that contain nutrient-providing blood vessels Cartilage:  Doesn’t contain blood vessels or nerves  Mature cartilage cells = chondrocytes o Chondrocytes occur alone or in groups in spaces (lacunae) in a matrix of translucent proteins  Flexible, endures a great deal of stress  Functions o Forms embryonic skeleton o Covers ends of bones o Support and flexibility in tubes such as the trachea o Joint cushioning Four major types of bones: Long  Typically cylindrical for added strength  Thighs, legs, toes, arms, forearms, fingers Short  Cube-shaped appearance  Tend to contain spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone  Wrist, ankle Flat  A layer of spongy bone between two plates of compact bone  Protection and muscle attachment  Skull, ribs, scapulae Irregular  No defined shape  Varying amounts of spongy and compact bone  Vertebrae, facial bones Axial skeleton  Central core  Skull, vertebral column, thorax, bones of the middle ear, hyoid bone Bones 2 Appendicular skeleton  Upper limbs, lower limbs, pelvic and pectoral girdles Parts of a long bone  Diaphysis – bone shaft  Epiphysis – each bone end  Metaphysis – region in which diaphysis and epiphysis join  Epiphyseal plate – in a growing bone, the metaphysis consists of cartilage  Articular cartilage – covering each end of the epiphysis, a thin layer of cartilage that reduces j
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