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Chapter 12 - Cell Cycle and Mitosis

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Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Christopher Kennedy

Cells • All living organisms comprised of cells • 200 trillion cells in humans [200 * 10^12] • Single-celled (bacteria, amoeba) ... Simplest • All cells arise from pre-existing cells • Cell features ◦ Structure ◦ Function ◦ Reproduction (division) ◦ Cell cycle [Fig 6-8] - animal cell structure Cell division • Purpose ◦ For reproduction to produce new cells ◦ For growth and development of organism ◦ Repair of damaged tissues • Cell division must give rise to "daughter" cells that are genetically identical 1. Nuclei (DNA) divides in mitosis 2. Cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis) Bacterial cell division is simplest... Binary fission [Fig 12-12] - bacterial cell division] Multicellular organisms • Mitosis is part of the "cell cycle" ◦ G1 = first gap phase (cell growth phase) ◦ S = synthesis of DNA (duplication) ◦ G2 = second gap phase (ready for cell division) Mitosis phase [Fig 12-7] - cell division • Prophase = chromosomes appear, each with a sister chromatid (DNA copied) ◦ Mitotic spindle (microtubules form in cytoplasm) ◦ Centrosomes = microtubules organizing center • Pro metaphase = nuclear envelope breaks down microtubules of spindle organize at the poles of cell. They extends down to
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