BISC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Fibroblast, Cancer Cell

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BISC 101 – Lecture 10 – The Cell Cycle: Part II
Cytokinesis
Cell division begins here
Cytokinesis: The separation of cytoplasm into two daughter cells
In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a
cleavage furrow on the cell surface
oThe cleavage furrow appears because a ring of actin filaments form just
inside the plasma membrane, in a plane that bisects the cell
oMotor protein called myosin binds to these actin filaments, ATP causes
these filaments to slide and tightens
oThe plasma membrane pinches forward until cell division is complete
In plant cells, a cell plate forms during cytokinesis
oA series of microtubules and other proteins define and organize the
region where the new plasma membrane and cell walls form
oVesicles (Containing cell wall materials) from Golgi move along
microtubules to the middle of the cell where a cell plate is formed
oThe vesicles carry components of the cell wall and plasma membrane
oThese components gradually build up, completing the cell plate and
dividing the two daughter cells
Mitosis In a Plant Cell
1. Prophase
The chromatin is condensing
The nucleolus is beginning to disappear
Although not yet visible, the mitotic spindle is starting to form
2. Prometaphase
We now see discrete chromosomes
Each consist of two identical sister chromatids
Later, the nuclear envelope will fragment
3. Metaphase
The spindle is complete and the chromosomes attached to microtubules at
their kinetochores, are all at the metaphase plate
4. Anaphase
The chromatids of each chromosome have separated
The daughter chromosomes are moving to the ends of the cell as their
kinetochore microtubules shorten
5. Telophase
Daughter nuclei are forming
Cytokinesis has started
The cell plate, which will divide the cytoplasm in two, is growing toward the
perimeter of the parent cell
Binary Fission
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