BISC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Chondroitin Sulfate, Gastrovascular Cavity, Extracellular Fluid

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BISC 101 – Lecture 12 – Animal Form & Function
Diverse Forms, Common Challenges
Anatomy: The study of the biological form of an organism
Physiology: The study of the biological functions an organism performs
Comparative study of animals reveals that form (anatomy) and function
(physiology) are closely correlated
oEx: Long, tongue – like proboscis of a hawkmoth is a structural adaptation
for feeding on nectar within tube – shaped flowers
Form and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
Size and shape affect the way an animal interacts with its environment
Many different animal body plans have evolved and are determined by the
genome or environment
Exchange with the Environment
Materials such a nutrients, waste products, and gases must be exchanged
across the cell membranes of animal cells
Rate of Exchange: Proportional to a cell’s surface area
Amount of Exchange Material: Proportional to a cell’s volume
Exchange occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium diffuse and
are transported across the plasma membrane
oEx: A single – celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of
plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm
Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan have body walls that are only two
cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials
oThe hydra’s gastrovascular cavity opens to the exterior, allowing both
outer and inner layers of cells to be bathed in water
In flat animals the distance between cells and the environment is minimized
oFlatworms and tapeworms
More complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging
Hierarchal Organization of Body Plans
Interstitial Fluid: Fluid filled in the spaces between cells to allow movement of
material into and out of cells
oInterstitial fluid is present in vertebrates
A complex body plan helps an animal in a variable environment to maintain a
relatively stable internal environment
Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues that have
different functions
Tissues make up organs, which together make up the organ system
oCells Tissue Organ Organ System
Tissue Structure and Function
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Different tissues have different structures that are suited to their functions
Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial Tissue: Tightly packed cells that are closely joined together that cover
the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body
Various shapes of epithelial cells
oCuboidal: Dice – like
oColumnar: Long thing rectangular like bricks
oSquamous: Like floor tiles
Simple Epithelium: Single layer of cells
Stratified Epithelium: Multiple layers of cells
Pseudostratified Epithelium: Single layer of cells but looks like multiple layers
Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue: Mainly binds and supports other tissues
Contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
1. Loose Connective Tissue: Binds epithelia to underlying tissues, holds organs in place
2. Fibrous Connective Tissue: Found in tendons and ligaments
oTendons: Attach muscles to bones
oLigaments: Connect bones at joints
3. Cartilage: A strong and flexible support material
oFound in the nose, ears, vertebral disks, and part of the rib cage
oCartilage has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix
made of a substance called chondroitin sulfate
Chondroitin Sulfate: A protein – carbohydrate complex
oChondrocytes: Secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate
oThe composite of collagenous fibers and chroitin sulfate makes cartilage a
strong yet somewhat flexible support material
oThe skeleton of sharks, skates and rays are predominantly made up of cartilage
4. Adipose Tissue: Stores fat for insulation and fuel
oEach adipose cell contains a large fat droplet that swells when fat is stored and
shrinks when the body uses fat as fuel
5. Blood: Composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma
oMatrix is a liquid called plasma, consisting of water, salts, and dissolved proteins
oSuspended in the plasma are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white
blood cells) and cell fragments called thrombocytes (platelets)
6. Bone: Mineralized and forms the skeleton
oOsteoblasts: Immature bone cells that deposit a matrix of collagen
oLacunae: Spaces where active osteoblasts are trapped as new bone is formed
oOsteocytes: Matured osteoblasts
oCalcium and phosphate ions combine with collagen and harden within the matrix
into the mineral hydroxyapatite
oThe combination of hard mineral and flexible collagen makes bone harder than
cartilage without being brittle
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