Cell cycle: formation of a eukaryotic cell through duplication of its chromosomes until division. Chromosomes as discrete structures when they condensed into compact structures. Interphase: nondividing phase but dna replication (no dramatic change/chromosomes uncoil into long/thin structures) In the nucleus where histone (protein) with dna. G1 (first gap) phase: provides time required for parent cell to grow large enough, synthesize enough organelles that it"s daughter cell can be normal in size/function. G1 checkpoint: cell continues in cycle/divides or exits the cell and enters g0. Depends on size/availability of nutrients/social signals/damage on dna. Prevents growth of mature cells that are in g0 phase. P53 (protein): regulatory protein called tumour suppressors that activate genes that stop the cell cycle until damage can be repaired. S phase: replication of genetic material is separated from the partitioning of chromosomes during m phase. G2 (second gap) phase: same as first gap. G2 checkpoint: mpf (mitosis promoting factors) triggers and signals.