BISC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Lipid Bilayer, Osmosis, Facilitated Diffusion

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Pre Reading Notes: Cells/Macromolecules
Three Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Four main types of macromolecules: Carbohydrates (COH group), lipids (soluble
in nonpolar, insoluble in water, COOH group), proteins (R group (IF C-H THEN NON
POLAR)), nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)
C-H bonds are nonpolar (equal in electronegativity, electrons shared equally, and
C-O bonds are polar
Plant Cell
Cell Wall: Rigid barrier composed of polysaccharides
Chloroplasts: Gets energy of sunlight and makes sugars.
Vacuoles: Water-filled organelles give structural rigidity of plants by
maintaining turgor pressure against cell walls.
Pre Reading Notes: Membranes/Transport
Plasma Membrane: Layer of molecules that surrounds the cell’s interior and
separates it from external environment. Selective barrier (keeps damaging cells
out/entry component)
Amphipathic: A molecule that has both hydrophobic/hydrophilic components
Hydrophilic: Tendency to mix with or dissolve with water
Hydrophobic: Tendency to repel water
Eukaryotes Cell Components:
Nucleus: Stores DNA, control cell activities
Nucleolus: Ribosomes/RNA synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum: iTransport and folds protein, where lipids are made
Golgi: Protein processing (some sugars)
Ribosomes: Make (synthesize) protein (Translation)
Cytoskeleton: Cell movement and transport, forms spindle during mitosis, maintains
cell structure & shape
Mitochondria: Energy, make ATP, energy to drive cellular processes
Cell Membrane: Transport in and out , compartmentalization, Barrier, cell-cell
communication; signal detection
Nucleus/Membrane-bound compartments with specific functions (different
from prokaryotes)
Organelle: Any structure which occurs in cells and has a specialized function.
Lysosomes: Degrade macromolecules
Bacteria Cell (Prokaryotes):
DNA is contained in circular chromosome, folded by many loops
Often have small additional DNA called plasmids
Has plasma membrane/cell wall
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