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Lecture 4

BISC 101 - Lecture 4 - DNA Technology.docx

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Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Christopher Kennedy

Biological Science 101 – General Biology Lecture Four: DNA Technology Textbook: Ch. 14, Pgs. 262-267 Figs. 14.1-14.7 Ch. 20, Pgs. 396-407, 412-423 Figs. 20.1-20.26 Mendelian Inheritance of Traits Inheritance of Traits: - Genes are passed on from one generation to the next. - Humans have 21,000 genes. - Rice Plant has 40,000 genes. - Mice have 22,000 genes. Chromosomes and Gene Mapping Chromosomes contain genes. - 23 sets of chromosomes = 46 (Humans). - Carrots have 14 chromosomes. - Cucumbers have 12 chromosomes. “Genome Projects”: - Sequence the entire genuine (identify genes). - Humans have 3 billion bases. - Identifies genes related to diseases. Gene Inheritance: Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) - Gardening of peas. - Made crossbreeds. - Studied various traits (phenotypes). Dominant – Purple flower phenotype. (AA) Recessive – White flower phenotype. (aa) - Traits transmitted. - Traits independently transmitted. Recessive genes in Humans: - Sickle cell anemia. - Cystic fibrosis (defective transport protein) -> involved in the transmission of chlorine ion. “Genetics”: The study of genes in populations and generation. Environment is very important for gene expression. - Identical twin studies. Recombinant DNA Technology 1) DNA Fingerprinting - Identifying specific individuals based on their DNA sequence. - Every person has a unique DNA pattern. - Used to solving murder cases, crime cases, paternity cases. Steps to DNA Fingerprinting: a) Extract DNA, cut with restriction enzymes. b) DNA bank established. c) Recognizes a specific sequence and cuts the DNA. Gel Electrophoresis - Separate DNA pieces based on size. RFLP = Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism 2) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - To amplify DNA from very small samples. - Need primers, nucleotides and DNA polymerase. E.g. Used in forensic science.  Dinosaur DNA 3) Gene Cloning and Recombinant DNA a) Isolate gene of interest. b) Transfer gene to another organism. - Express a unique protein in an organism (E.g. Insulin, Growth hormones) - Organism easiest to use is Bacteria. Genetic Engineering: - Insert and express a new (foreign) gene, Genetic Engineering: - Insert and express a new (foreign) gene, Bacterial genes -> plants Fish gene -> plants Genetically Modified Foods (GMO’s) Human gene -> bacteria 4
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