Anthropomorphism: tendency to interpret animal behaviors in human terms: Alignment: steer towards average heading of neighbors (same. Cohesion: move towards average position of neighbors (aim for the direction as others) middle) Flocks are more efficient at feeding (finding food sources) and avoiding predators. An individual in a flock has a better theoretical chance of surviving than a solitary individual. Behaviour: response to a stimulus mediated by nervous system. Complex behaviour can be triggered by innate ( hard wired ) stimuli. Neural pathway: processed in ganglia or brain. Response: example: action of muscles or glands. Innate behaviour: occurs completely first time performed. Some species have an innate behaviour that is time-limited (few hours or days) after birth that bonds parents and offspring (birds especially). If parents missing in critical period, other species or even moving objects may become bonded (genes and environment both important) Learned behaviour: develops and changes in response to environmental stimuli.