BISC 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Synapsis, Internal Fertilization, Sister Chromatids

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Fungi/animals share a common ancestor in cladograms, actual ancestors are never inferred (presumed unknown) unlike many older trees. In cladograms, actual ancestors are never inferred (presumed unknown) unlike many older trees. Some organisms regularly reproduce without sex (example without fertilization of eggs/sperm or conjugation) The parent passes 100% genes to its offspring. Very common in plants: many do both kinds of reproduction (example: Selfing (self-pollination): not truly asexual but produce offspring genetically similar to parent (example: peanuts) Sexual reproduction: occurs through fertilization of gametes to produce a genetically novel individuals. Offspring similar but still genetically distinct from parents/siblings. Each parent passes 50% of its genes to each offspring. By breeding with a male, a female halves her genetic contribution to her offspring. Only half the population (female) is capable of bearing offspring (asxual competitors would win by out reproducing sexual species. Assumptions of the model on the next slide: All females give birth to the same number of offspring.

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