Biology 1110: Handout #1—Introduction
All page references are to Campbell Biology 9 ed. Please note that classroom lectures and discussions may go
beyond the material presented in the textbook. Also be aware that classroom quizzes and exams may include
questions that are not addressed on the handouts.
1. List some general properties of life. (pp. 1-2)
A highly ordered structure
Response to the environment
Growth and development
2. Describe the major unifying themes of biology. (pp. 2-11)
New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy. The major levels in order from large to
small are (1) the biosphere, (2) ecosystems, (3) communities, (4) populations, (5) organisms, (6) organs and
organ systems, (7) tissues, (8) cells, (9) organelles, and (10) molecules.
Organisms interact with each other and with the physical environment.
Life requires energy transfer and transformation.
Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization.
The cell is an organism’s basic unit of structure and function.
The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA.
Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems.
Evolution is the core theme of biology.
3. Discuss evolution as the core theme of biology. (pp. 11-17)
Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life.
Natural selection is an important mechanism of evolution. Describe, using examples, the process of natural
4. Cells, continued. (pp. 94, 98-99)
“The development of instruments that extend the human senses has gone hand in hand with the advance of
science.” (p. 94) Briefly describe the discovery and early study of cells.
Cell theory, a fundamental idea of modern biology, makes two statements: (a) all organisms are composed
of one or more cells, (b) all cells arise from previously existing cells. (Note that the textbook does not
discuss cell theory.)
All cells share certain structures: a plasma membrane, cytosol, DNA, and ribosomes. (p. 98)
There are two main forms of cells: prokaryotic cells occur in microorganisms called bacteria and archaea;
eukaryotic cells occur in all other organisms, including animals , plants, fungi, and protists. (p. 98)
Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
prokaryotic cells eukaryotic cells
Introduction --- page 1/2 5. Describe the structure and function of the major organelles found in eukaryotic cells. (pp. 100-101)
organelle structure function(s)
nucleus large; bounded by a double membrane