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Psychology 201W - Ethics - Tuesday 21st May 2013.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
BISC 110
John Reynolds

PSYCH 201W Summer 2013 Psychology 201W: Introduction to Research Methods Ethics Announcements: - Research Project Outline is due in the beginning of tutorial next week. (Week of May 27 , 2013). - Make sure your research study topic sticks to the guidelines and restrictions. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review on Last Week’s Lecture: - Hypothesis Generation:  Simple Hypothesis: “The effect of X and Y.”  Complex Hypothesis: “The effect of X on Y depends on Z.” - Science and the Scientific Method:  Defining “Science” and its goals. - Variables, and ways of Classifying Variables:  Defining variables: o Qualitative vs. Quantitative o Discrete vs. Continuous o Person/Subject/Participant vs. Situational/Stimulus o Independent vs. Dependent o Manipulated vs. Measured o Correlational/Non-Experimental vs. Experimental o Hypothetical vs. Non-Hypothetical o Mediating vs. Moderating ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ethics: - Ethics is really important in social sciences. - Ethics is also an important aspect in Research Methods for many reasons, most notably:  You will be working within a certain ethical guideline, which has certain limitations on what you can do to your participants and how you treat your participants.  Based on the coalification of ethical principles, that came out of something known as “The Belmont Report”.  The Belmont Report has had an enormous impact on the research done in social sciences and psychology. History: - History is important in this discipline. - Events that have occurred in history have determined what has happened in psychology to a large degree. PSYCH 201W Summer 2013 - Without knowing any of the history, you don’t really have an understanding to why we do some of the things we do in psychology and why certain paradigm shifts have occurred in psychology. - It’s not just about building scientific knowledge; it’s about events in history that determined what has happened in this discipline. Background of the Tuskeegee Syphilis Study: - Interesting study found that had an impact on how we investigate phenomena in the social sciences. - Study was one of the best examples of blatant disregard for welfare of human beings. - Took place in 1928 and lasted for decades. - During this time African-Americans were known to have the lowest socio- economic status and health care for them was non-existent. - Julius Rosenwald Fund (Chicago-based charity) wanted to improve healthcare for African-Americans in the Deep South. Steps Leading to the Tuskeegee Syphilis Study: - Julius Rosenwald Fund was a Chicago-based charity approached the US Public Health Services to figure out ways to improve the healthcare for African-Americans. - At this time, the Public Health Service just finished conducting a study on the rate of syphilis in a company that was known to employ African-Americans for cheap labour (around 2000 men). - Results of the study were alarming as they found that 25% of the men had syphilis. - Rosenwald Fund wanted to set up a treatment plan because they assumed that a large percentage of African-Americans particularly in the Deep South needed some treatment for syphilis. - Setting up a program takes up a lot of resources (time, effort and money) and the following year (1929) the Stock Market Crashed causing the Great Depression. - As a result of the Great Depression, the Rosenwald Fund lost a lot of money and therefore had to pull out of the program. - The Public Health Service didn’t have enough money for that treatment plan and there was a lot of concern for the variation of syphilis and the outcome of syphilis amongst people who had it. - The Public Health Service enlisted the Tuskeegee Institute, which had a history of service to the local African-Americans in the Deep South. - In return, the Tuskeegee Institute received: money, training for their interns and employment for their nurses. The Tuskeegee Syphilis Study: - The Tuskeegee Syphilis Institute recruited a number of black church leaders to help enlist people to participate in the study. - At the time of the project, African-Americans in the Deep South had no access to medical care and so for many of the participants in the study, just the examination PSYCH 201W Summer 2013 by the Public Health Service was the first contact they had with any kind of healthcare. - The participants were given food and transportation so it wasn’t dif
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