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Lecture 2

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
BISC 110
Robin Barrow

Lecture 2- Adaption by natural selection What is an adaption? • Any TRAIT that helps an organism survive and reproduce • Adaptions can be: ◦ Structural ◦ Behavioral ◦ Physiological Structural adaptions (examples) • Crab spider: their body colour is disguised to capture prey • Lampsilis freshwater clam: their mantle tissue looks like a small fish that attracts other fishes • Giraffes: their long neck • Peacocks: their colourful feathers Behavioural adaptions (examples) • Acherfish: spits water, hits the insect which falls in the water • Satin bowerbird: male builds tunnel, with blue coloured items (like feathers) • the more blue the tunnel is, the more chance of females to mate • Migration: example: birds moving to different geographical places (seasonal) so they can breed more, get more food supplies • Matrimony: marriage, mating Physiological adaptions • Desert animals: adapt in hot climate • Bombardier beetle: releases 2 chemicals to mix, and makes a foul smell and sound • Sperms: they kill one another since only 1 can be used Theories: what lead to adaption? • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck ◦ Species are not fixed, but changes over time ◦ doesn't believe how God places animals, and plants on Earth ◦ He thought of 2 processes that lead to adaption: ▪ use and disuse ▪ inheritance of acquired characteristics ◦ BUT both of these processes are proven WRONG Charles Darwin • became a naturalist and traveled to discover plants and animals ◦ wrote, “The Orgin of Species” ◦ his friend: Alfred Russell Wallace ▪ collected butterflies ▪ helped Darwin What processes REALLY lead to adaption? • Main point is NATURAL SELECTION • Natural Selection: process where the individual in a population that have characteristics best suited to the environment: survive and reproduce better t
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